A1 General Economics
  A10 General
  A11 Role of Economics • Role of Economists • Market for Economists
  A12 Relation of Economics to Other Disciplines
  A13 Relation of Economics to Social Values
  A14 Sociology of Economics
  A19 Other
A2 Economic Education and Teaching of Economics
  A20 General
  A21 Pre-college
  A22 Undergraduate
  A23 Graduate
  A29 Other
A3 Collective Works
  A30 General
  A31 Collected Writings of Individuals
  A32 Collective Volumes
  A33 Handbooks
  A39 Other
B00 General
B1 History of Economic Thought through 1925
  B10 General
  B11 Preclassical (Ancient, Medieval, Mercantilist, Physiocratic)
  B12 Classical (includes Adam Smith)
  B13 Neoclassical through 1925 (Austrian, Marshallian, Walrasian, Wicksellian)
  B14 Socialist • Marxist
  B15 Historical • Institutional • Evolutionary
  B16 Quantitative and Mathematical
  B17 International Trade and Finance
  B19 Other
B2 History of Economic Thought since 1925
  B20 General
  B21 Microeconomics
  B22 Macroeconomics
  B23 Econometrics • Quantitative and Mathematical Studies
  B24 Socialist • Marxist • Sraffian
  B25 Historical • Institutional • Evolutionary • Austrian • Stockholm School
  B26 Financial Economics
  B27 International Trade and Finance
  B29 Other
B3 History of Economic Thought: Individuals
  B30 General
  B31 Individuals
  B32 Obituaries
B4 Economic Methodology
  B40 General
  B41 Economic Methodology
  B49 Other
B5 Current Heterodox Approaches
  B50 General
  B51 Socialist • Marxian • Sraffian
  B52 Historical • Institutional • Evolutionary • Modern Monetary Theory
  B53 Austrian
  B54 Feminist Economics
  B55 Social Economics
  B59 Other
C00 General
  C01 Econometrics
  C02 Mathematical Methods
C1 Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General
  C10 General
  C11 Bayesian Analysis: General
  C12 Hypothesis Testing: General
  C13 Estimation: General
  C14 Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
  C15 Statistical Simulation Methods: General
  C18 Methodological Issues: General
  C19 Other
C2 Single Equation Models • Single Variables
  C20 General
  C21 Cross-Sectional Models • Spatial Models • Treatment Effect Models • Quantile Regressions
  C22 Time-Series Models • Dynamic Quantile Regressions • Dynamic Treatment Effect Models • Diffusion Processes
  C23 Panel Data Models • Spatio-temporal Models
  C24 Truncated and Censored Models • Switching Regression Models • Threshold Regression Models
  C25 Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models • Discrete Regressors • Proportions • Probabilities
  C26 Instrumental Variables (IV) Estimation
  C29 Other
C3 Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models • Multiple Variables
  C30 General
  C31 Cross-Sectional Models • Spatial Models • Treatment Effect Models • Quantile Regressions • Social Interaction Models
  C32 Time-Series Models • Dynamic Quantile Regressions • Dynamic Treatment Effect Models • Diffusion Processes • State Space Models
  C33 Panel Data Models • Spatio-temporal Models
  C34 Truncated and Censored Models • Switching Regression Models
  C35 Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models • Discrete Regressors • Proportions
  C36 Instrumental Variables (IV) Estimation
  C38 Classification Methods • Cluster Analysis • Principal Components • Factor Models
  C39 Other
C4 Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics
  C40 General
  C41 Duration Analysis • Optimal Timing Strategies
  C43 Index Numbers and Aggregation
  C44 Operations Research • Statistical Decision Theory
  C45 Neural Networks and Related Topics
  C46 Specific Distributions • Specific Statistics
  C49 Other
C5 Econometric Modeling
  C50 General
  C51 Model Construction and Estimation
  C52 Model Evaluation, Validation, and Selection
  C53 Forecasting and Prediction Methods • Simulation Methods
  C54 Quantitative Policy Modeling
  C55 Large Data Sets: Modeling and Analysis
  C57 Econometrics of Games and Auctions
  C58 Financial Econometrics
  C59 Other
C6 Mathematical Methods • Programming Models • Mathematical and Simulation Modeling
  C60 General
  C61 Optimization Techniques • Programming Models • Dynamic Analysis
  C62 Existence and Stability Conditions of Equilibrium
  C63 Computational Techniques • Simulation Modeling
  C65 Miscellaneous Mathematical Tools
  C67 Input–Output Models
  C68 Computable General Equilibrium Models
  C69 Other
C7 Game Theory and Bargaining Theory
  C70 General
  C71 Cooperative Games
  C72 Noncooperative Games
  C73 Stochastic and Dynamic Games • Evolutionary Games • Repeated Games
  C78 Bargaining Theory • Matching Theory
  C79 Other
C8 Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology • Computer Programs
  C80 General
  C81 Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Microeconomic Data • Data Access
  C82 Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Macroeconomic Data • Data Access
  C83 Survey Methods • Sampling Methods
  C87 Econometric Software
  C88 Other Computer Software
  C89 Other
C9 Design of Experiments
  C90 General
  C91 Laboratory, Individual Behavior
  C92 Laboratory, Group Behavior
  C93 Field Experiments
  C99 Other
D00 General
  D01 Microeconomic Behavior: Underlying Principles
  D02 Institutions: Design, Formation, Operations, and Impact
  D04 Microeconomic Policy: Formulation, Implementation, and Evaluation
D1 Household Behavior and Family Economics
  D10 General
  D11 Consumer Economics: Theory
  D12 Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
  D13 Household Production and Intrahousehold Allocation
  D14 Household Saving • Personal Finance
  D15 Intertemporal Household Choice • Life Cycle Models and Saving
  D16 Collaborative Consumption
  D18 Consumer Protection
  D19 Other
D2 Production and Organizations
  D20 General
  D21 Firm Behavior: Theory
  D22 Firm Behavior: Empirical Analysis
  D23 Organizational Behavior • Transaction Costs • Property Rights
  D24 Production • Cost • Capital • Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity • Capacity
  D25 Intertemporal Firm Choice: Investment, Capacity, and Financing
  D26 Crowd-Based Firms
  D29 Other
D3 Distribution
  D30 General
  D31 Personal Income, Wealth, and Their Distributions
  D33 Factor Income Distribution
  D39 Other
D4 Market Structure, Pricing, and Design
  D40 General
  D41 Perfect Competition
  D42 Monopoly
  D43 Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection
  D44 Auctions
  D45 Rationing • Licensing
  D46 Value Theory
  D47 Market Design
  D49 Other
D5 General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium
  D50 General
  D51 Exchange and Production Economies
  D52 Incomplete Markets
  D53 Financial Markets
  D57 Input–Output Tables and Analysis
  D58 Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models
  D59 Other
D6 Welfare Economics
  D60 General
  D61 Allocative Efficiency • Cost–Benefit Analysis
  D62 Externalities
  D63 Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
  D64 Altruism • Philanthropy • Intergenerational Transfers
  D69 Other
D7 Analysis of Collective Decision-Making
  D70 General
  D71 Social Choice • Clubs • Committees • Associations
  D72 Political Processes: Rent-Seeking, Lobbying, Elections, Legislatures, and Voting Behavior
  D73 Bureaucracy • Administrative Processes in Public Organizations • Corruption
  D74 Conflict • Conflict Resolution • Alliances • Revolutions
  D78 Positive Analysis of Policy Formulation and Implementation
  D79 Other
D8 Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty
  D80 General
  D81 Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty
  D82 Asymmetric and Private Information • Mechanism Design
  D83 Search • Learning • Information and Knowledge • Communication • Belief • Unawareness
  D84 Expectations • Speculations
  D85 Network Formation and Analysis: Theory
  D86 Economics of Contract: Theory
  D87 Neuroeconomics
  D89 Other
D9 Micro-Based Behavioral Economics
  D90 General
  D91 Role and Effects of Psychological, Emotional, Social, and Cognitive Factors on Decision Making
E00 General
  E01 Measurement and Data on National Income and Product Accounts and Wealth • Environmental Accounts
  E02 Institutions and the Macroeconomy
E1 General Aggregative Models
  E10 General
  E11 Marxian • Sraffian • Kaleckian
  E12 Keynes • Keynesian • Post-Keynesian • Modern Monetary Theory
  E13 Neoclassical
  E14 Austrian • Evolutionary • Institutional
  E16 Social Accounting Matrix
  E17 Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
  E19 Other
E2 Consumption, Saving, Production, Investment, Labor Markets, and Informal Economy
  E20 General
  E21 Consumption • Saving • Wealth
  E22 Investment • Capital • Intangible Capital • Capacity
  E23 Production
  E24 Employment • Unemployment • Wages • Intergenerational Income Distribution • Aggregate Human Capital • Aggregate Labor Productivity
  E25 Aggregate Factor Income Distribution
  E26 Informal Economy • Underground Economy
  E27 Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
  E29 Other
E3 Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles
  E30 General
  E31 Price Level • Inflation • Deflation
  E32 Business Fluctuations • Cycles
  E37 Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
  E39 Other
E4 Money and Interest Rates
  E40 General
  E41 Demand for Money
  E42 Monetary Systems • Standards • Regimes • Government and the Monetary System • Payment Systems
  E43 Interest Rates: Determination, Term Structure, and Effects
  E44 Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
  E47 Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
  E49 Other
E5 Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit
  E50 General
  E51 Money Supply • Credit • Money Multipliers
  E52 Monetary Policy
  E58 Central Banks and Their Policies
  E59 Other
E6 Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook
  E60 General
  E61 Policy Objectives • Policy Designs and Consistency • Policy Coordination
  E62 Fiscal Policy
  E63 Comparative or Joint Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary Policy • Stabilization • Treasury Policy
  E64 Incomes Policy • Price Policy
  E65 Studies of Particular Policy Episodes
  E66 General Outlook and Conditions
  E69 Other
E7 Macro-Based Behavioral Economics
  E70 General
  E71 Role and Effects of Psychological, Emotional, Social, and Cognitive Factors on the Macro Economy
F00 General
  F01 Global Outlook
  F02 International Economic Order and Integration
F1 Trade
  F10 General
  F11 Neoclassical Models of Trade
  F12 Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies • Fragmentation
  F13 Trade Policy • International Trade Organizations
  F14 Empirical Studies of Trade
  F15 Economic Integration
  F16 Trade and Labor Market Interactions
  F17 Trade Forecasting and Simulation
  F18 Trade and Environment
  F19 Other
F2 International Factor Movements and International Business
  F20 General
  F21 International Investment • Long-Term Capital Movements
  F22 International Migration
  F23 Multinational Firms • International Business
  F24 Remittances
  F29 Other
F3 International Finance
  F30 General
  F31 Foreign Exchange
  F32 Current Account Adjustment • Short-Term Capital Movements
  F33 International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions
  F34 International Lending and Debt Problems
  F35 Foreign Aid
  F36 Financial Aspects of Economic Integration
  F37 International Finance Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
  F38 International Financial Policy: Financial Transactions Tax; Capital Controls
  F39 Other
F4 Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance
  F40 General
  F41 Open Economy Macroeconomics
  F42 International Policy Coordination and Transmission
  F43 Economic Growth of Open Economies
  F44 International Business Cycles
  F45 Macroeconomic Issues of Monetary Unions
  F47 Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
  F49 Other
F5 International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy
  F50 General
  F51 International Conflicts • Negotiations • Sanctions
  F52 National Security • Economic Nationalism
  F53 International Agreements and Observance • International Organizations
  F54 Colonialism • Imperialism • Postcolonialism
  F55 International Institutional Arrangements
  F59 Other
F6 Economic Impacts of Globalization
  F60 General
  F61 Microeconomic Impacts
  F62 Macroeconomic Impacts
  F63 Economic Development
  F64 Environment
  F65 Finance
  F66 Labor
  F68 Policy
  F69 Other
G00 General
  G01 Financial Crises
G1 General Financial Markets
  G10 General
  G11 Portfolio Choice • Investment Decisions
  G12 Asset Pricing • Trading Volume • Bond Interest Rates
  G13 Contingent Pricing • Futures Pricing
  G14 Information and Market Efficiency • Event Studies • Insider Trading
  G15 International Financial Markets
  G17 Financial Forecasting and Simulation
  G18 Government Policy and Regulation
  G19 Other
G2 Financial Institutions and Services
  G20 General
  G21 Banks • Depository Institutions • Micro Finance Institutions • Mortgages
  G22 Insurance • Insurance Companies • Actuarial Studies
  G23 Non-bank Financial Institutions • Financial Instruments • Institutional Investors
  G24 Investment Banking • Venture Capital • Brokerage • Ratings and Ratings Agencies
  G28 Government Policy and Regulation
  G29 Other
G3 Corporate Finance and Governance
  G30 General
  G31 Capital Budgeting • Fixed Investment and Inventory Studies • Capacity
  G32 Financing Policy • Financial Risk and Risk Management • Capital and Ownership Structure • Value of Firms • Goodwill
  G33 Bankruptcy • Liquidation
  G34 Mergers • Acquisitions • Restructuring • Corporate Governance
  G35 Payout Policy
  G38 Government Policy and Regulation
  G39 Other
G4 Behavioral Finance
  G40 General
  G41 Role and Effects of Psychological, Emotional, Social, and Cognitive Factors on Decision Making in Financial Markets
G5 Household Finance 
  G50 General
  G51 Household Saving, Borrowing, Debt, and Wealth
  G52 Insurance
  G53 Financial Literacy
  G59 Other
H00 General
H1 Structure and Scope of Government
  H10 General
  H11 Structure, Scope, and Performance of Government
  H12 Crisis Management
  H13 Economics of Eminent Domain • Expropriation • Nationalization
  H19 Other
H2 Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue
  H20 General
  H21 Efficiency • Optimal Taxation
  H22 Incidence
  H23 Externalities • Redistributive Effects • Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
  H24 Personal Income and Other Nonbusiness Taxes and Subsidies
  H25 Business Taxes and Subsidies
  H26 Tax Evasion and Avoidance
  H27 Other Sources of Revenue
  H29 Other
H3 Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents
  H30 General
  H31 Household
  H32 Firm
  H39 Other
H4 Publicly Provided Goods
  H40 General
  H41 Public Goods
  H42 Publicly Provided Private Goods
  H43 Project Evaluation • Social Discount Rate
  H44 Publicly Provided Goods: Mixed Markets
  H49 Other
H5 National Government Expenditures and Related Policies
  H50 General
  H51 Government Expenditures and Health
  H52 Government Expenditures and Education
  H53 Government Expenditures and Welfare Programs
  H54 Infrastructures • Other Public Investment and Capital Stock
  H55 Social Security and Public Pensions
  H56 National Security and War
  H57 Procurement
  H59 Other
H6 National Budget, Deficit, and Debt
  H60 General
  H61 Budget • Budget Systems
  H62 Deficit • Surplus
  H63 Debt • Debt Management • Sovereign Debt
  H68 Forecasts of Budgets, Deficits, and Debt
  H69 Other
H7 State and Local Government • Intergovernmental Relations
  H70 General
  H71 State and Local Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue
  H72 State and Local Budget and Expenditures
  H73 Interjurisdictional Differentials and Their Effects
  H74 State and Local Borrowing
  H75 State and Local Government: Health • Education • Welfare • Public Pensions
  H76 State and Local Government: Other Expenditure Categories
  H77 Intergovernmental Relations • Federalism • Secession
  H79 Other
H8 Miscellaneous Issues
  H80 General
  H81 Governmental Loans • Loan Guarantees • Credits • Grants • Bailouts
  H82 Governmental Property
  H83 Public Administration • Public Sector Accounting and Audits
  H84 Disaster Aid
  H87 International Fiscal Issues • International Public Goods
  H89 Other
I00 General
I1 Health
  I10 General
  I11 Analysis of Health Care Markets
  I12 Health Behavior
  I13 Health Insurance, Public and Private
  I14 Health and Inequality
  I15 Health and Economic Development
  I18 Government Policy • Regulation • Public Health
  I19 Other
I2 Education and Research Institutions
  I20 General
  I21 Analysis of Education
  I22 Educational Finance • Financial Aid
  I23 Higher Education • Research Institutions
  I24 Education and Inequality
  I25 Education and Economic Development
  I26 Returns to Education
  I28 Government Policy
  I29 Other
I3 Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty
  I30 General
  I31 General Welfare, Well-Being
  I32 Measurement and Analysis of Poverty
  I38 Government Policy • Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
  I39 Other
J00 General
  J01 Labor Economics: General
  J08 Labor Economics Policies
J1 Demographic Economics
  J10 General
  J11 Demographic Trends, Macroeconomic Effects, and Forecasts
  J12 Marriage • Marital Dissolution • Family Structure • Domestic Abuse
  J13 Fertility • Family Planning • Child Care • Children • Youth
  J14 Economics of the Elderly • Economics of the Handicapped • Non-Labor Market Discrimination
  J15 Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants • Non-labor Discrimination
  J16 Economics of Gender • Non-labor Discrimination
  J17 Value of Life • Forgone Income
  J18 Public Policy
  J19 Other
J2 Demand and Supply of Labor
  J20 General
  J21 Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
  J22 Time Allocation and Labor Supply
  J23 Labor Demand
  J24 Human Capital • Skills • Occupational Choice • Labor Productivity
  J26 Retirement • Retirement Policies
  J28 Safety • Job Satisfaction • Related Public Policy
  J29 Other
J3 Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs
  J30 General
  J31 Wage Level and Structure • Wage Differentials
  J32 Nonwage Labor Costs and Benefits • Retirement Plans • Private Pensions
  J33 Compensation Packages • Payment Methods
  J38 Public Policy
  J39 Other
J4 Particular Labor Markets
  J40 General
  J41 Labor Contracts
  J42 Monopsony • Segmented Labor Markets
  J43 Agricultural Labor Markets
  J44 Professional Labor Markets • Occupational Licensing
  J45 Public Sector Labor Markets
  J46 Informal Labor Markets
  J47 Coercive Labor Markets
  J48 Public Policy
  J49 Other
J5 Labor–Management Relations, Trade Unions, and Collective Bargaining
  J50 General
  J51 Trade Unions: Objectives, Structure, and Effects
  J52 Dispute Resolution: Strikes, Arbitration, and Mediation • Collective Bargaining
  J53 Labor–Management Relations • Industrial Jurisprudence
  J54 Producer Cooperatives • Labor Managed Firms • Employee Ownership
  J58 Public Policy
  J59 Other
J6 Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers
  J60 General
  J61 Geographic Labor Mobility • Immigrant Workers
  J62 Job, Occupational, and Intergenerational Mobility
  J63 Turnover • Vacancies • Layoffs
  J64 Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search
  J65 Unemployment Insurance • Severance Pay • Plant Closings
  J68 Public Policy
  J69 Other
J7 Labor Discrimination
  J70 General
  J71 Discrimination
  J78 Public Policy
  J79 Other
J8 Labor Standards: National and International
  J80 General
  J81 Working Conditions
  J82 Labor Force Composition
  J83 Workers' Rights
  J88 Public Policy
  J89 Other
K00 General
K1 Basic Areas of Law
  K10 General
  K11 Property Law
  K12 Contract Law
  K13 Tort Law and Product Liability • Forensic Economics
  K14 Criminal Law
  K15 Civil Law • Common Law
  K16 Election Law
  K19 Other
K2 Regulation and Business Law
  K20 General
  K21 Antitrust Law
  K22 Business and Securities Law
  K23 Regulated Industries and Administrative Law
  K24 Cyber Law
  K25 Real Estate Law
  K29 Other
K3 Other Substantive Areas of Law
  K30 General
  K31 Labor Law
  K32 Energy, Environmental, Health, and Safety Law
  K33 International Law
  K34 Tax Law
  K35 Personal Bankruptcy Law
  K36 Family and Personal Law
  K37 Immigration Law
  K38 Human Rights Law • Gender Law
  K39 Other
K4 Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior
  K40 General
  K41 Litigation Process
  K42 Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law
  K49 Other
L00 General
L1 Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance
  L10 General
  L11 Production, Pricing, and Market Structure • Size Distribution of Firms
  L12 Monopoly • Monopolization Strategies
  L13 Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets
  L14 Transactional Relationships • Contracts and Reputation • Networks
  L15 Information and Product Quality • Standardization and Compatibility
  L16 Industrial Organization and Macroeconomics: Industrial Structure and Structural Change • Industrial Price Indices
  L17 Open Source Products and Markets
  L19 Other
L2 Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior
  L20 General
  L21 Business Objectives of the Firm
  L22 Firm Organization and Market Structure
  L23 Organization of Production
  L24 Contracting Out • Joint Ventures • Technology Licensing
  L25 Firm Performance: Size, Diversification, and Scope
  L26 Entrepreneurship
  L29 Other
L3 Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise
  L30 General
  L31 Nonprofit Institutions • NGOs • Social Entrepreneurship
  L32 Public Enterprises • Public-Private Enterprises
  L33 Comparison of Public and Private Enterprises and Nonprofit Institutions • Privatization • Contracting Out
  L38 Public Policy
  L39 Other
L4 Antitrust Issues and Policies
  L40 General
  L41 Monopolization • Horizontal Anticompetitive Practices
  L42 Vertical Restraints • Resale Price Maintenance • Quantity Discounts
  L43 Legal Monopolies and Regulation or Deregulation
  L44 Antitrust Policy and Public Enterprises, Nonprofit Institutions, and Professional Organizations
  L49 Other
L5 Regulation and Industrial Policy
  L50 General
  L51 Economics of Regulation
  L52 Industrial Policy • Sectoral Planning Methods
  L53 Enterprise Policy
  L59 Other
L6 Industry Studies: Manufacturing
  L60 General
  L61 Metals and Metal Products • Cement • Glass • Ceramics
  L62 Automobiles • Other Transportation Equipment • Related Parts and Equipment
  L63 Microelectronics • Computers • Communications Equipment
  L64 Other Machinery • Business Equipment • Armaments
  L65 Chemicals • Rubber • Drugs • Biotechnology • Plastics
  L66 Food • Beverages • Cosmetics • Tobacco • Wine and Spirits
  L67 Other Consumer Nondurables: Clothing, Textiles, Shoes, and Leather Goods; Household Goods; Sports Equipment
  L68 Appliances • Furniture • Other Consumer Durables
  L69 Other
L7 Industry Studies: Primary Products and Construction
  L70 General
  L71 Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Hydrocarbon Fuels
  L72 Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Other Nonrenewable Resources
  L73 Forest Products
  L74 Construction
  L78 Government Policy
  L79 Other
L8 Industry Studies: Services
  L80 General
  L81 Retail and Wholesale Trade • e-Commerce
  L82 Entertainment • Media
  L83 Sports • Gambling • Restaurants • Recreation • Tourism
  L84 Personal, Professional, and Business Services
  L85 Real Estate Services
  L86 Information and Internet Services • Computer Software
  L87 Postal and Delivery Services
  L88 Government Policy
  L89 Other
L9 Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities
  L90 General
  L91 Transportation: General
  L92 Railroads and Other Surface Transportation
  L93 Air Transportation
  L94 Electric Utilities
  L95 Gas Utilities • Pipelines • Water Utilities
  L96 Telecommunications
  L97 Utilities: General
  L98 Government Policy
  L99 Other
M00 General
M1 Business Administration
  M10 General
  M11 Production Management
  M12 Personnel Management • Executives; Executive Compensation
  M13 New Firms • Startups
  M14 Corporate Culture • Diversity • Social Responsibility
  M15 IT Management
  M16 International Business Administration
  M19 Other
M2 Business Economics
  M20 General
  M21 Business Economics
  M29 Other
M3 Marketing and Advertising
  M30 General
  M31 Marketing
  M37 Advertising
  M38 Government Policy and Regulation
  M39 Other
M4 Accounting and Auditing
  M40 General
  M41 Accounting
  M42 Auditing
  M48 Government Policy and Regulation
  M49 Other
M5 Personnel Economics
  M50 General
  M51 Firm Employment Decisions • Promotions
  M52 Compensation and Compensation Methods and Their Effects
  M53 Training
  M54 Labor Management
  M55 Labor Contracting Devices
  M59 Other
N00 General
  N01 Development of the Discipline: Historiographical; Sources and Methods
N1 Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics • Industrial Structure • Growth • Fluctuations
  N10 General, International, or Comparative
  N11 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
  N12 U.S. • Canada: 1913–
  N13 Europe: Pre-1913
  N14 Europe: 1913–
  N15 Asia including Middle East
  N16 Latin America • Caribbean
  N17 Africa • Oceania
N2 Financial Markets and Institutions
  N20 General, International, or Comparative
  N21 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
  N22 U.S. • Canada: 1913–
  N23 Europe: Pre-1913
  N24 Europe: 1913–
  N25 Asia including Middle East
  N26 Latin America • Caribbean
  N27 Africa • Oceania
N3 Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy
  N30 General, International, or Comparative
  N31 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
  N32 U.S. • Canada: 1913-
  N33 Europe: Pre-1913
  N34 Europe: 1913-
  N35 Asia including Middle East
  N36 Latin America • Caribbean
  N37 Africa • Oceania
N4 Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation
  N40 General, International, or Comparative
  N41 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
  N42 U.S. • Canada: 1913–
  N43 Europe: Pre-1913
  N44 Europe: 1913–
  N45 Asia including Middle East
  N46 Latin America • Caribbean
  N47 Africa • Oceania
N5 Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries
  N50 General, International, or Comparative
  N51 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
  N52 U.S. • Canada: 1913–
  N53 Europe: Pre-1913
  N54 Europe: 1913–
  N55 Asia including Middle East
  N56 Latin America • Caribbean
  N57 Africa • Oceania
N6 Manufacturing and Construction
  N60 General, International, or Comparative
  N61 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
  N62 U.S. • Canada: 1913–
  N63 Europe: Pre-1913
  N64 Europe: 1913–
  N65 Asia including Middle East
  N66 Latin America • Caribbean
  N67 Africa • Oceania
N7 Transport, Trade, Energy, Technology, and Other Services
  N70 General, International, or Comparative
  N71 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
  N72 U.S. • Canada: 1913–
  N73 Europe: Pre-1913
  N74 Europe: 1913–
  N75 Asia including Middle East
  N76 Latin America • Caribbean
  N77 Africa • Oceania
N8 Micro-Business History
  N80 General, International, or Comparative
  N81 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
  N82 U.S. • Canada: 1913–
  N83 Europe: Pre-1913
  N84 Europe: 1913–
  N85 Asia including Middle East
  N86 Latin America • Caribbean
  N87 Africa • Oceania
N9 Regional and Urban History
  N90 General, International, or Comparative
  N91 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
  N92 U.S. • Canada: 1913–
  N93 Europe: Pre-1913
  N94 Europe: 1913–
  N95 Asia including Middle East
  N96 Latin America • Caribbean
  N97 Africa • Oceania
O1 Economic Development
  O10 General
  O11 Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
  O12 Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
  O13 Agriculture • Natural Resources • Energy • Environment • Other Primary Products
  O14 Industrialization • Manufacturing and Service Industries • Choice of Technology
  O15 Human Resources • Human Development • Income Distribution • Migration
  O16 Financial Markets • Saving and Capital Investment • Corporate Finance and Governance
  O17 Formal and Informal Sectors • Shadow Economy • Institutional Arrangements
  O18 Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis • Housing • Infrastructure
  O19 International Linkages to Development • Role of International Organizations
O2 Development Planning and Policy
  O20 General
  O21 Planning Models • Planning Policy
  O22 Project Analysis
  O23 Fiscal and Monetary Policy in Development
  O24 Trade Policy • Factor Movement Policy • Foreign Exchange Policy
  O25 Industrial Policy
  O29 Other
O3 Innovation • Research and Development • Technological Change • Intellectual Property Rights
  O30 General
  O31 Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
  O32 Management of Technological Innovation and R&D
  O33 Technological Change: Choices and Consequences • Diffusion Processes
  O34 Intellectual Property and Intellectual Capital
  O35 Social Innovation
  O36 Open Innovation
  O38 Government Policy
  O39 Other
O4 Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity
  O40 General
  O41 One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models
  O42 Monetary Growth Models
  O43 Institutions and Growth
  O44 Environment and Growth
  O47 Empirical Studies of Economic Growth • Aggregate Productivity • Cross-Country Output Convergence
  O49 Other
O5 Economywide Country Studies
  O50 General
  O51 U.S. • Canada
  O52 Europe
  O53 Asia including Middle East
  O54 Latin America • Caribbean
  O55 Africa
  O56 Oceania
  O57 Comparative Studies of Countries
P00 General
P1 Capitalist Systems
  P10 General
  P11 Planning, Coordination, and Reform
  P12 Capitalist Enterprises
  P13 Cooperative Enterprises
  P14 Property Rights
  P16 Political Economy
  P17 Performance and Prospects
  P18 Energy • Environment
  P19 Other
P2 Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies
  P20 General
  P21 Planning, Coordination, and Reform
  P22 Prices
  P23 Factor and Product Markets • Industry Studies • Population
  P24 National Income, Product, and Expenditure • Money • Inflation
  P25 Urban, Rural, and Regional Economics
  P26 Political Economy • Property Rights
  P27 Performance and Prospects
  P28 Natural Resources • Energy • Environment
  P29 Other
P3 Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions
  P30 General
  P31 Socialist Enterprises and Their Transitions
  P32 Collectives • Communes • Agriculture
  P33 International Trade, Finance, Investment, Relations, and Aid
  P34 Financial Economics
  P35 Public Economics
  P36 Consumer Economics • Health • Education and Training • Welfare, Income, Wealth, and Poverty
  P37 Legal Institutions • Illegal Behavior
  P39 Other
P4 Other Economic Systems
  P40 General
  P41 Planning, Coordination, and Reform
  P42 Productive Enterprises • Factor and Product Markets • Prices • Population
  P43 Public Economics • Financial Economics
  P44 National Income, Product, and Expenditure • Money • Inflation
  P45 International Trade, Finance, Investment, and Aid
  P46 Consumer Economics • Health • Education and Training • Welfare, Income, Wealth, and Poverty
  P47 Performance and Prospects
  P48 Political Economy • Legal Institutions • Property Rights • Natural Resources • Energy • Environment • Regional Studies
  P49 Other
P5 Comparative Economic Systems
  P50 General
  P51 Comparative Analysis of Economic Systems
  P52 Comparative Studies of Particular Economies
  P59 Other
Q00 General
  Q01 Sustainable Development
  Q02 Commodity Markets
Q1 Agriculture
  Q10 General
  Q11 Aggregate Supply and Demand Analysis • Prices
  Q12 Micro Analysis of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets
  Q13 Agricultural Markets and Marketing • Cooperatives • Agribusiness
  Q14 Agricultural Finance
  Q15 Land Ownership and Tenure • Land Reform • Land Use • Irrigation • Agriculture and Environment
  Q16 R&D • Agricultural Technology • Biofuels • Agricultural Extension Services
  Q17 Agriculture in International Trade
  Q18 Agricultural Policy • Food Policy
  Q19 Other
Q2 Renewable Resources and Conservation
  Q20 General
  Q21 Demand and Supply • Prices
  Q22 Fishery • Aquaculture
  Q23 Forestry
  Q24 Land
  Q25 Water
  Q26 Recreational Aspects of Natural Resources
  Q27 Issues in International Trade
  Q28 Government Policy
  Q29 Other
Q3 Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation
  Q30 General
  Q31 Demand and Supply • Prices
  Q32 Exhaustible Resources and Economic Development
  Q33 Resource Booms
  Q34 Natural Resources and Domestic and International Conflicts
  Q35 Hydrocarbon Resources
  Q37 Issues in International Trade
  Q38 Government Policy
  Q39 Other
Q4 Energy
  Q40 General
  Q41 Demand and Supply • Prices
  Q42 Alternative Energy Sources
  Q43 Energy and the Macroeconomy
  Q47 Energy Forecasting
  Q48 Government Policy
  Q49 Other
Q5 Environmental Economics
  Q50 General
  Q51 Valuation of Environmental Effects
  Q52 Pollution Control Adoption and Costs • Distributional Effects • Employment Effects
  Q53 Air Pollution • Water Pollution • Noise • Hazardous Waste • Solid Waste • Recycling
  Q54 Climate • Natural Disasters and Their Management • Global Warming
  Q55 Technological Innovation
  Q56 Environment and Development • Environment and Trade • Sustainability • Environmental Accounts and Accounting • Environmental Equity • Population Growth
  Q57 Ecological Economics: Ecosystem Services • Biodiversity Conservation • Bioeconomics • Industrial Ecology
  Q58 Government Policy
  Q59 Other
R00 General
R1 General Regional Economics
  R10 General
  R11 Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes
  R12 Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity
  R13 General Equilibrium and Welfare Economic Analysis of Regional Economies
  R14 Land Use Patterns
  R15 Econometric and Input–Output Models • Other Models
  R19 Other
R2 Household Analysis
  R20 General
  R21 Housing Demand
  R22 Other Demand
  R23 Regional Migration • Regional Labor Markets • Population • Neighborhood Characteristics
  R28 Government Policy
  R29 Other
R3 Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location
  R30 General
  R31 Housing Supply and Markets
  R32 Other Spatial Production and Pricing Analysis
  R33 Nonagricultural and Nonresidential Real Estate Markets
  R38 Government Policy
  R39 Other
R4 Transportation Economics
  R40 General
  R41 Transportation: Demand, Supply, and Congestion • Travel Time • Safety and Accidents • Transportation Noise
  R42 Government and Private Investment Analysis • Road Maintenance • Transportation Planning
  R48 Government Pricing and Policy
  R49 Other
R5 Regional Government Analysis
  R50 General
  R51 Finance in Urban and Rural Economies
  R52 Land Use and Other Regulations
  R53 Public Facility Location Analysis • Public Investment and Capital Stock
  R58 Regional Development Planning and Policy
  R59 Other
Y1 Data: Tables and Charts
  Y10 Data: Tables and Charts
Y2 Introductory Material
  Y20 Introductory Material
Y3 Book Reviews (unclassified)
  Y30 Book Reviews (unclassified)
Y4 Dissertations (unclassified)
  Y40 Dissertations (unclassified)
Y5 Further Reading (unclassified)
  Y50 Further Reading (unclassified)
Y6 Excerpts
  Y60 Excerpts
Y7 No Author General Discussions
  Y70 No Author General Discussions
Y8 Related Disciplines
  Y80 Related Disciplines
Y9 Other
  Y90 Other
  Y91 Pictures and Maps
  Y92 Novels, Self-Help Books, etc.
  Z00 General
Z1 Cultural Economics • Economic Sociology • Economic Anthropology
  Z10 General
  Z11 Economics of the Arts and Literature
  Z12 Religion
  Z13 Economic Sociology • Economic Anthropology • Language • Social and Economic Stratification
  Z18 Public Policy
  Z19 Other
Z2 Sports Economics
  Z20 General
  Z21 Industry Studies
  Z22 Labor Issues
  Z23 Finance
  Z28 Policy
  Z29 Other
Z3 Tourism Economics
  Z30 General
  Z31 Industry Studies
  Z32 Tourism and Development
  Z33 Marketing and Finance
  Z38 Policy
  Z39 Other