Management & Economics Research Journal <p style="background-color: #ab877c12; padding: 5px; border-radius: 3px;">Management &amp; Economics Research Journal constitutes a wide scientific space for various academic public, researchers, problem-solvers, and decision-makers, for purpose of publishing original research previously unpublished and not submitted for publication anywhere else and characterized by quality and originality, and edited in English. The goal of the journal is to create a scientific space for issues related to business, economics, and management in the African and international contexts, which can be analyzed and discussed by academics and researchers, national and international, of the highest level. Given its international orientation, the Journal is especially open to scientifically and practically valid contributions from abroad. The Journal provides online Open Access to the content in the full text of all published contributions.</p> <div class="alert alert-success" style="margin-bottom: -25px; margin-top: -25px; padding: 4px; text-align: center;"><a class="highlightit" title="Open-access journal distributed under the terms of (CC BY-NC 4.0)"><img style="display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" src="/merj/public/site/images/admin/OpenAcess-with-CCby.png" width="150" height="26"></a>This journal is fully open access and doesn't have any article processing charges "APCs" or publication fees.</div> <p><a class="highlightit"><br></a><button class="btn btn-default center-block dropdown-toggle collapsed shake" style="box-shadow: 1px 2px 4px rgb(0 0 0 / 12%);" type="button" data-toggle="collapse" data-target="#demo" aria-expanded="false"><em class="fa fa-info-circle fa-lg" style="color: #1e74e391;">&nbsp;</em>Journal Information</button></p> <div id="demo" class="collapse fadeInUp animated" style="border-radius: 8px; padding: 3px; box-shadow: rgba(74, 181, 224, 0.67) 1px 2px 4px; color: rgba(10, 11, 10, 0.72); height: 6px; margin-top: -15px;" aria-expanded="false"><span class="badge badge-danger" style="background-color: #c7237eb5;"><strong>e-ISSN</strong></span> <a class="hvr-underline-from-center side-menu_hover_effect" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2710-8856</a><br><span class="badge badge-danger" style="background-color: #c7237eb5;"><strong>p-ISSN</strong></span> <a class="hvr-underline-from-center side-menu_hover_effect" href="">2676-184X</a><br><span class="badge badge-danger" style="background-color: #f4ae24;"><strong> Title DOI</strong></span> <a class="hvr-underline-from-center side-menu_hover_effect" href=";from_ui=yes&amp;type-name=Journal" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.48100/merj</a> by <a class="highlightit" title="Crossref" href=";from_ui=yes" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" width="èà" height="24"></a><br><strong style="color: #279bbe;"><em class="fa fa-check-square-o">&nbsp;</em>Type of peer-review:</strong> Double-blind peer review<br><strong style="color: #279bbe;"><em class="fa fa-check-square-o">&nbsp;</em>Frequency:</strong> Biannual (<span class="aCOpRe">2 issues/year: March &amp; September starting from January 1, 2021</span>)<strong style="color: #279bbe;"><br><em class="fa fa-check-square-o">&nbsp;</em>Business model: </strong><a class="hvr-underline-from-center side-menu_hover_effect" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">OA</a> (<span style="color: #068627;">Not charge article processing charges "APCs" or publication fees</span>), fully open access for readers and authors<br><strong style="color: #279bbe;"><em class="fa fa-check-square-o">&nbsp;</em>Language of publication:</strong> English (Starting from January 1, 2021: Management &amp; Economics Research Journal is published in English only)<strong><br><strong style="color: #279bbe;"><em class="fa fa-check-square-o">&nbsp;</em>Published since: </strong></strong>2019<strong><br><strong style="color: #279bbe;"><em class="fa fa-check-square-o">&nbsp;</em>Title in English: </strong></strong>Management &amp; Economics Research Journal<strong><br><strong style="color: #279bbe;"><em class="fa fa-check-square-o">&nbsp;</em>Аlternative titles:</strong><br></strong>مجلة بحوث الإدارة و الاقتصاد<strong><br></strong>Magallat buhut al-idarat wa al-iqtisad <strong><br><strong style="color: #279bbe;"><em class="fa fa-check-square-o">&nbsp;</em>Founder &amp; Publisher: </strong></strong><a class="hvr-underline-from-center side-menu_hover_effect" href="" target="_blank" rel="\&quot;noopener\&quot; noopener">Ziane Achour University of Djelfa</a><strong><br><strong style="color: #279bbe;"><em class="fa fa-check-square-o">&nbsp;</em>Country: </strong></strong><a class="hvr-underline-from-center side-menu_hover_effect" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Algeria</a><strong><br><strong style="color: #279bbe;"><em class="fa fa-check-square-o">&nbsp;</em>Indexed in:</strong> </strong><a class="hvr-underline-from-center side-menu_hover_effect" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ERIHPLUS</a>, <a class="hvr-underline-from-center side-menu_hover_effect" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>, <a class="hvr-underline-from-center side-menu_hover_effect" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">AJOL</a>, <a class="hvr-underline-from-center side-menu_hover_effect" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EBSCO</a> and <a class="hvr-underline-from-center side-menu_hover_effect" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">more</a><strong><br><strong style="color: #279bbe;"><em class="fa fa-check-square-o">&nbsp;</em>Acceptance rate: </strong></strong>33%<br><strong style="color: #279bbe;"><em class="fa fa-check-square-o">&nbsp;</em>Submission to first decision: </strong>1 Week<br><strong style="color: #279bbe;"><em class="fa fa-check-square-o">&nbsp;</em>Peer-review speed: </strong>4-8 Weeks <div class="wrapper"> <div class="counter col_fourth"> <h2 class="timer count-title count-number" data-to="4" data-speed="1500">&nbsp;</h2> <p class="count-text ">Volumes</p> </div> <div class="counter col_fourth"> <h2 class="timer count-title count-number" data-to="13" data-speed="1500">&nbsp;</h2> <p class="count-text ">Issues</p> </div> <div class="counter col_fourth end"> <h2 class="timer count-title count-number" data-to="100" data-speed="1500">&nbsp;</h2> <p class="count-text ">Articles</p> </div> </div> </div> Faculty of Economics, Commercial & Management Sciences ,Ziane Achour University of Djelfa (Algeria) en-US Management & Economics Research Journal 2676-184X <p><button class="btn btn-default dropdown-toggle collapsed" style="font-size: 13px; padding: 2px 4px 2px 4px;" type="button" data-toggle="collapse" data-target="#demo" aria-expanded="false"> Copyright Notice</button></p> <div id="demo" class="collapse" style="background: rgba(255, 215, 0, 0.11) none repeat scroll 0% 0%; padding: 12px; border-radius: 2px; margin-bottom: 10px;"> <p>Management &amp; Economics Research Journal is licensed under a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">(CC BY-NC 4.0)</a>.</p> <p>The following guidelines apply to all users:</p> <ul> <li class="show">1-Individuals may view, download, print, or save Journal content for the purposes of research and teaching.</li> <li class="show">2-Any use and/or copies of this Journal in whole or in part must include the customary bibliographic citation, including author attribution, date, article title, the Journal name, and its website address.</li> </ul> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <p>a) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="">(CC BY-NC 4.0)</a> that allows others to share and adapt the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>b) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal’s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0;">c) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Where authors include such work in an institutional repository or on their website, we request that they include a statement that acknowledges the Management &amp; Economics Research journal including the name of the journal, the volume and issue, and a web link to the journal item.</p> </div> Household Effective Demand for Electricity in Ghana: Analysis and Implication for Tariffs Outcomes of most developing country projects to secure inclusive growth through electricity provision appear to hinge on available information regarding households’ response to electricity. To provide the needed information for policy, this study assessed the determinants of household electricity demand and estimated the mean willingness to pay for electricity by households in Ghana. The study used a Contingent Valuation modelling procedure involving over 3000 households, to derive an effective demand function for electricity in Ghana. This was done through a national household survey. A mathematical programming analytical procedure was employed, to fully account for the block pricing tariff system used in Ghana. The study found that Ghanaian households are willing to pay a monthly mean electricity tariff of 50.40 Ghana cedis (US$11.56), which is lower than the average monthly tariff of 73.67 Ghana cedis (US$16.90) paid by households. Thus, the average tariff paid by households monthly is 46% higher than the mean willingness to pay. The study also found that the highest impact determinants of demand for electricity in Ghana were affordability of tariffs, usage of electrical appliances, and availability of electricity respectively. This study employs a mathematical programming procedure to determine the mean willingness to pay for electricity in Ghana. This procedure is theoretically more robust than the often-used differential calculus approach since it incorporates the block pricing of electricity in Ghana, which the calculus approach ignores. Also, it uses the largest and most inclusive known sample, specifically designed to elicit households’ willingness to pay for electricity in Ghana. The study is also unique in its findings. Jonathan D. Quartey Wisdom D. Ametorwotia Prosper B. Laari Copyright (c) 2022 Jonathan D. Quartey, Wisdom D. Ametorwotia, Prosper B. Laari 2022-09-05 2022-09-05 4 2 1 24 10.48100/merj.2022.192 Trade Balance, Exchange Rate and Money Supply in Nigeria: Growth Implications and Lesson for African Countries <p>The significance of trade in the development of nations made this study examine the impact of trade balance, exchange rate, and money supply on economic growth with reference to Nigeria's economy and serve as a lesson for other African countries. The study relies on the Mundell-Fleming BOP model for its framework with the use of secondary time-series data extracted from the statistical bulletin of the Central Bank of Nigeria from 1981 to 2020. The ARDL cointegration of the least square was adopted and the result showed a long-term relationship among trade balance, exchange rate, broad money supply, interest rate, inflation rate, and economic growth in Nigeria. Our study thus concludes that the oil trade balance is the fundamental driver of Nigeria's economic growth and appropriately, we suggested that to ensure economic growth in Nigeria and other African countries; the government should strategize on policies to develop trade in the non-oil sector; also the monetary authorities should design frameworks towards making money supply growth enhancer, and stabilization of the exchange rate for domestic countries to gain more from trade by intensifying the flux of credit to the real and exporting sector towards setting the economies on the track of expansion.</p> Kunle Bankole Osinusi Nurudeen Abiodun Lawal Sodiq Olaide Bisiriyu Copyright (c) 2022 Kunle Bankole Osinusi, Nurudeen Abiodun Lawal, Sodiq Olaide Bisiriyu 2022-09-05 2022-09-05 4 2 25 44 10.48100/merj.2022.213 Crafting Innovativeness for Graduate Entrepreneurship Development in East Africa: Are Graduates Innovators or Imitators? <p>Innovation is a central determinant that contributes to entrepreneurs’ pursuits of opportunities. It is the vehicle that carries the means to concur market and successful establishment of an enterprise. This study aimed at assessing graduates’ innovativeness for entrepreneurship development by employing a cross-sectional research design. The study involved 124 respondents selected from a population of Master's students specialising in science subjects originating from East African countries. Objectives one and two were analysed descriptively via per cent and frequencies while objective three was analysed through inferential statistics where one sample T-test was employed for assessing the difference between innovation developed and innovation advanced to markets. The findings indicate that for all forms of innovation the level of innovation is relatively low since all the ratings were below 40 per cent. Similarly, the innovation advanced to the markets was respectively low compared to innovation developed. It is concluded that the level of innovation is limited among first-degree graduates specialising in science subjects in East African countries and the number of innovations advanced to the market for entrepreneurship development is relatively low compared to innovation developed. This calls for a review of the innovation process development in the higher learning education system. In addition, the recasting of enabling environment for innovation development is needed.</p> Paschal B. Nade Copyright (c) 2022 Paschal B. Nade 2022-09-05 2022-09-05 4 2 45 62 10.48100/merj.2022.215 The Contextual Dimensions of Informal Economy and Entrepreneurship <p>This study investigates the global dynamics of the informal economy and the need for the coexistence of both the informal and formal economy. Developing and developed countries are beset with various forms of social and economic problems such as unemployment, poverty levels, informal jobs, and global issues. Informal Entrepreneurship remains a focal means to reduce unemployment and create jobs in many economies. Using the Institutional theory, the dynamics of informal economy and entrepreneurship were investigated using a qualitative approach and secondary data from the International Labour Organization and Women in Informal Employment: Globalizing and Organizing datasets. The findings depict the need to ensure that both the informal and the formal economy coexist well rather than merging them due to their interwoven nature. This calls for the adoption of a system and holistic perspective for studying facets of informal-formal entrepreneurship in different contexts Informal economy and informal entrepreneurship are essential for the reduction of global unemployment and development of innovation in the value chain in their contexts. Globally, informal economy and informal entrepreneurship provide safety nets, a source of livelihood, and pay informal levies that contribute to economic growth and development. The study shows how informal entrepreneurship contributes to the business environment. The contextual evidence from the literature justifies the necessity for informal entrepreneurship and the economy due to the interplay of imperfect market conditions, institutional voids, entrepreneurial behavior, and local business dynamics.</p> Adeleke. O. Banwo Bola Momoh Copyright (c) 2022 Adeleke. O. Banwo, Bola Momoh 2022-09-05 2022-09-05 4 2 63 82 10.48100/merj.2022.228 Determinants of Susceptibility to Sunk-Cost Fallacy: A Nigerian Case Study <p>A general economic principle is that when evaluating the costs of a decision, sunk costs should not be considered and that the decision-maker should consider only those costs that are incurred as a result of making that decision. However, both anecdotal and empirical evidence has shown that when making decisions, people are influenced by sunk costs, thereby committing the sunk-cost fallacy. A corpus of research has established that this fallacy occurs among different nations and cultures to differing extents or degrees. However, none of the previous research was conducted on Nigerians. This study, therefore, investigates whether Nigerians, too, commit this fallacy and then identifies factors that affect Nigerians’ susceptibility to the fallacy. Employing a binary logit model, it was found that about 49 per cent of the respondents to questions based on a decision-making vignette committed the sunk-cost fallacy. The results also showed that locus of cost responsibility (whether the cost was borne by the decision maker or another person on behalf of the decision maker) and ethnicity (whether the decision maker is Yoruba or not) were significant determinants of susceptibility to sunk-cost fallacy. This suggests that in Nigeria sunk-cost fallacy is intrapersonal and more prevalent among the Yorubas than among the Hausas or the Igbos. Therefore, the sunk-cost fallacy is ubiquitous and more likely in personal decisions than decisions made on behalf of others.</p> Musa Ilias Biala Copyright (c) 2022 Musa Ilias Biala 2022-09-05 2022-09-05 4 2 83 105 10.48100/merj.2022.231