Main Article Content

Abstract

This study examines the impact of psychopathic and narcissist personalities on employees' adverse outcomes. Additionally, this study investigates the intervening mechanism of workplace incivility among the relationship between psychopathic and narcissist personalities and adverse outcomes. Furthermore, the interactive impact of Islamic work values was also tested between the association of workplace incivility and adverse outcomes. Using the purposive sampling technique, data was collected through a survey method from 404 permanent employees of a public sector organization in two different time lags. PROCESS-macro was used to test indirect, interactive, and moderated mediation effects.  The findings of this study confirm the direct effect relationship between that psychopathic and narcissist personalities and employees’ adverse outcomes. Further, this study confirms that workplace incivility indirectly enhances the adverse outcomes of employees. Finally, the study findings revealed that a higher level of Islamic work values reduces the adverse outcomes of the employees having psychopathic and narcissistic personality characteristics. We also tested moderated mediation model, which disclosed that a higher level of Islamic work values reduces the negativity level of psychopathic personalities that further decreases the level of counterproductive work behaviors via workplace incivility. However, there was no moderating role of Islamic work values to reduce narcissist personalities' negativity levels and reduce counterproductive work behaviors via workplace incivility. The present study by providing information to the management of the public sector organizations on how they can overcome the negative behaviors and outcomes of their workforce through the implementation of the Islamic ethical system. This attempt contributed to ethical climate theory and threatened the egotism model by explaining that negative personality traits predict uncivil behaviors, which further lead to adverse outcomes. This study further contributes that the ethical climate of the organization helps the individuals to overcome the negativity of their personality and negative behaviors as well.

Article Details

How to Cite
Chughtai, M. S., Akram, H., Razzaq, T., Rasheed, A., & Shah, R. (2022). Impact of Psychopathy and Narcissism on Employees’ Adverse Outcomes: A Perspective of Ethical Climate Theory and Threatened-Egotism Model. Management & Economics Research Journal, 4(1), 129-152. https://doi.org/10.48100/merj.2022.190
Cited by

References

  1. Abbasi, A. S., Rehman, K. U., & Bibi, A. (2011). Islamic work ethics: How it affects business performance. Actual Problems of Economics(12), 312-322.
  2. Abbasi, T. F. (2015). Impact of Work Overload on Stress, Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intentions with Moderating Role of Islamic Work Ethics. Management Studies and Economic Systems, 54(2518), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.12816/0018080
  3. Abid, G., Khan, B., Rafiq, Z., & Ahmed, A. (2015). Workplace incivility: Uncivil activities, antecedents, consequences, and level of incivility. Science International, 27(6), 6307-6312.
  4. Ahmad. (2011). Work ethics: An Islamic prospective. Journal of Human Sciences, 8(1), 850-859.
  5. Ahmed, A., Arshad, M. A., Mahmood, A., & Akhtar, S. (2019). The influence of spiritual values on employee’s helping behavior: the moderating role of Islamic work ethic. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 16(3), 235-263. https://doi.org/10.1080/14766086.2019.1572529
  6. Akella, D., & Lewis, V. J. (2019). The Modern Face of Workplace Incivility. Organization Management Journal, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1080/15416518.2019.1604202
  7. Al-Shamali, A., Irani, Z., Haffar, M., Al-Shamali, S., & Al-Shamali, F. (2021). The influence of Islamic Work Ethic on employees’ responses to change in Kuwaiti Islamic banks. International Business Review, 101817. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2021.101817
  8. Andersson, L. M., & Pearson, C. M. (1999). Tit for tat? The spiraling effect of incivility in the workplace. Academy of Management Review, 24(3), 452-471. https://doi.org/10.2307/259136
  9. Anninos, L. N. (2018). Narcissistic business leaders as heralds of the self-proclaimed excellence. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 10(1), 49-60. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJQSS-01-2017-0001
  10. Bernard, H. R. (2017). Research methods in anthropology: Qualitative and quantitative approaches (3re (ed). ed.). Alta Mira Press. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315248813-1
  11. Bibi, Z., Karim, J., & ud Din, S. (2013). Workplace incivility and counterproductive work behavior: Moderating role of emotional intelligence. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 28(2), 317-334.
  12. Boey, L., & Vantilborgh, T. (2016). A theoretical model relating the dark triad of personality to the content of employees' psychological contracts. New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations, 40(3), 44-66.
  13. Brender-Ilan, Y., & Sheaffer, Z. (2019). How do self-efficacy, narcissism and autonomy mediate the link between destructive leadership and counterproductive work behaviour. Asia Pacific Management Review, 24(3), 212-222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmrv.2018.05.003
  14. Bushman, B. J., & Baumeister, R. F. (1998). Threatened egotism, narcissism, self-esteem, and direct and displaced aggression: Does self-love or self-hate lead to violence? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(1), 219. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.75.1.219
  15. Chaudhary, A., Islam, T., Ali, H. F., & Jamil, S. (2021). Can paternalistic leaders enhance knowledge sharing? The roles of organizational commitment and Islamic work ethics. Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication, ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print). https://doi.org/10.1108/GKMC-06-2021-0109
  16. Chen, Chen, M. Y.-C., & Liu, Y.-C. (2013). Negative affectivity and workplace deviance: The moderating role of ethical climate. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(15), 2894-2910. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2012.753550
  17. Chen, & Wang, C.-H. (2019). Incivility, satisfaction and turnover intention of tourist hotel chefs: Moderating effects of emotional intelligence. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 31(5), 2034-2053. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-02-2018-0164
  18. Chughtai, M., Salman., Khan, H. S. U. D., Shah, S. Z. A., & Yusrini, L. (2020). Dark Triad, Counterproductive Work Behaviors, Workplace Incivility, and the Role of Islamic Work Values: A Moderated Mediation Model. Business Ethics and Leadership, 4(4), 55-66. https://doi.org/10.21272/bel.4(4).56-67.2020
  19. Chughtai, M. S. (2017). Hrm Practices and Employee’s Performance: Moderating Role of Islamic Work Ethics and Mediating Role of Hr Outcomes in Judiciary of Punjab, Pakistan. Virtual University of Pakistan.
  20. Chughtai, M. S., & Ali Shah, S. Z. (2020). A Moderated Mediation Model: Mediating Mechanism of Workplace Incivility and Moderating Role of Islamic Work Ethics between Dark Triad and Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Management Issues in Healthcare System, 6(1), 1-17.
  21. Cohen, A. (2016). Are they among us? A conceptual framework of the relationship between the dark triad personality and counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs). Human Resource Management Review, 26(1), 69-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2015.07.003
  22. Cortina, L. M., Kabat-Farr, D., Magley, V. J., & Nelson, K. (2017). Researching rudeness: The past, present, and future of the science of incivility. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 22(3), 299-313. https://doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000089
  23. Cortina, L. M., Magley, V. J., Williams, J. H., & Langhout, R. D. (2001). Incivility in the workplace: incidence and impact. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6(1), 64–80. https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.6.1.64
  24. Cortina, L. M., Sandy Hershcovis, M., & Clancy, K. B. (2021). The Embodiment of Insult: A Theory of Biobehavioral Response to Workplace Incivility. Journal of Management, 0149206321989798. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206321989798
  25. Costello, B. J., & Dunaway, R. G. (2003). Egotism and delinquent behavior. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18(5), 572-590. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260503251128
  26. Cullen, J. B., Victor, B., & Bronson, J. W. (1993). The ethical climate questionnaire: An assessment of its development and validity. Psychological Reports, 73(2), 667-674. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1993.73.2.667
  27. De Dreu, C. K., & Nauta, A. (2009). Self-interest and other-orientation in organizational behavior: implications for job performance, prosocial behavior, and personal initiative. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(4), 913-926. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014494
  28. Debusscher, J., Hofmans, J., & De Fruyt, F. (2016). The effect of state core self-evaluations on task performance, organizational citizenship behaviour, and counterproductive work behaviour. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 25(2), 301-315. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2015.1063486
  29. Eisenbarth, H., Hart, C. M., Zubielevitch, E., Keilor, T., Wilson, M., Bulbulia, J., Sibley, C. G., & Sedikides, C. (2022). Aspects of psychopathic personality relate to lower subjective and objective professional success. Personality and Individual Differences, 186, 111340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2021.111340
  30. Etikan, I., Musa, S. A., & Alkassim, R. S. (2016). Comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling. American journal of theoretical and applied statistics, 5(1), 1-4. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajtas.20160501.11
  31. Garcia, D., & Rosenberg, P. (2016). The dark cube: dark and light character profiles. PeerJ, 4, e1675. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.1675
  32. Gheitani, A., Imani, S., Seyyedamiri, N., & Foroudi, P. (2019). Mediating effect of intrinsic motivation on the relationship between Islamic work ethic, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment in banking sector. International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, 12(1), 76-95. https://doi.org/10.1108/IMEFM-01-2018-0029
  33. González-Navarro, P., Zurriaga-Llorens, R., Tosin Olateju, A., & Llinares-Insa, L. I. (2018). Envy and counterproductive work behavior: The moderation role of leadership in public and private organizations. International journal of environmental research and public health, 15(7), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071455
  34. Greenbaum, R. L., Hill, A., Mawritz, M. B., & Quade, M. J. (2017). Employee Machiavellianism to unethical behavior: The role of abusive supervision as a trait activator. Journal of Management, 43(2), 585-609. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206314535434
  35. Grijalva, E., & Newman, D. A. (2015). Narcissism and counterproductive work behavior (CWB): Meta‐analysis and consideration of collectivist culture, Big Five personality, and narcissism's facet structure. Applied Psychology, 64(1), 93-126. https://doi.org/10.1111/apps.12025
  36. Gulerdg, M. (2020). The Dark Triad and Counterproductive Work Behaviors: Organizational Culture as Moderator Middle East Technical University].
  37. Hamesch, U., Cropley, M., & Lang, J. (2014). Emotional versus cognitive rumination: Are they differentially affecting long‐term psychological health? The impact of stressors and personality in dental students. Stress and Health, 30(3), 222-231. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.2602
  38. Han, S., Harold, C. M., Oh, I. S., Kim, J. K., & Agolli, A. (2021). A meta‐analysis integrating 20 years of workplace incivility research: Antecedents, consequences, and boundary conditions. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 1– 27. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.2568
  39. Haque, M. S. (2002). Globalization, new political economy, and governance: A third world viewpoint. Administrative Theory & Praxis, 24(1), 103-124. https://doi.org/10.1080/10841806.2002.11029352
  40. Harman, D. (1967). A single factor test of common method variance. Journal of Psychology, 35(1967), 359-378.
  41. Harms, P. D., & Spain, S. M. (2015). Beyond the bright side: Dark personality at work. Applied Psychology, 64(1), 15-24. https://doi.org/10.1111/apps.12042
  42. Hart, W., Adams, J. M., & Tortoriello, G. (2017). Narcissistic responses to provocation: An examination of the rage and threatened-egotism accounts. Personality and Individual Differences, 106, 152-156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.10.049
  43. Hart, W., Tortoriello, G. K., & Richardson, K. (2021). Provoked narcissistic aggression: Examining the role of de-escalated and escalated provocations. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 36(9-10), 4832-4853. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260518789901
  44. Hauge, L. J., Skogstad, A., & Einarsen, S. (2009). Individual and situational predictors of workplace bullying: Why do perpetrators engage in the bullying of others? Work & Stress, 23(4), 349-358. https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370903395568
  45. Hayati, K., Yuningsih, Y., & Caniago, I. (2018). Can Islamic Work Ethics and Ethical Climate Reduce Counterproductive Work Behavior? International Journal of Economics, Business, and Entrepreneurship, 1(2), 95-101. https://doi.org/10.23960/ijebe.v1i2.46
  46. Hayes, A. F. (2015). An Index and Test of Linear Moderated Mediation. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 50(1), 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1080/00273171.2014.962683
  47. Hayes, A. F. (2018). Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis (Second Edition ed.). The Guilford Press.
  48. He, Y., Walker, J. M., Payne, S. C., & Miner, K. N. (2021). Explaining the negative impact of workplace incivility on work and non‐work outcomes: The roles of negative rumination and organizational support. Stress and Health, 37(2), 297-309. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.2988
  49. Islam, T., Ahmed, I., Usman, A., & Ali, M. (2021). Abusive supervision and knowledge hiding: the moderating roles of future orientation and Islamic work ethics. Management Research Review, 44(12), 1565-1582.
  50. Jakobwitz, S., & Egan, V. (2006). The dark triad and normal personality traits. Personality and Individual Differences, 40(2), 331-339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2005.07.006
  51. Javaid, M., Abdullah, N., Zeb, A., & Hussain, K. (2018). The Impact of Authentic Leadership on Knowledge Sharing Behavior with the Moderating role of Islamic Work Ethics. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1049, 012007 https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1049/1/012007
  52. Jelavić, S. R., Aleksić, A., & Braje, I. N. (2021). Behind the Curtain: Workplace Incivility—Individual Actors in Cultural Settings. Sustainability, 13(3), 1249. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031249
  53. Jonason, P. K., Wee, S., & Li, N. P. (2015). Competition, autonomy, and prestige: Mechanisms through which the Dark Triad predict job satisfaction. Personality and Individual Differences, 72, 112-116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.08.026
  54. Jones, & Paulhus. (2014). Introducing the short dark triad (SD3) a brief measure of dark personality traits. Assessment, 21(1), 28-41. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191113514105
  55. Kareem, O., & bin Azmin, A. A. (2018). The Influence of Islamic Work Ethics on the Magnitude of Organizational Culture’s Effect on SME Performance in Nigeria: A Conceptual Framework. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(4), 11-23. https://doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i4/3994
  56. Karim, J., Bibi, Z., Rehman, S. U., & Khan, M. S. (2015). Emotional intelligence and perceived work-related outcomes: Mediating role of workplace incivility victimization. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 30(1), 21-37.
  57. Konrath, S., Bushman, B. J., & Campbell, W. K. (2006). Attenuating the link between threatened egotism and aggression. Psychological Science, 17(11), 995-1001. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2006.01818.x
  58. Kozako, Anual, N., Karim, Z. H. A., Shamsuddin, N., & Mustafa, Z. (2018). The Islamic Views on Counterproductive Work Behavior: Islamic Work Ethics Perspectives. Conference: International Conference On Islam And Global Issues, Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Kelantan.
  59. Lata, M., & Chaudhary, R. (2020). Dark Triad and instigated incivility: The moderating role of workplace spirituality. Personality and Individual Differences, 166, 110090. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.110090
  60. LeBreton, J. M., Shiverdecker, L. K., & Grimaldi, E. M. (2018). The dark triad and workplace behavior. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 5, 387-414. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-032117-104451
  61. Leiter, M. P., Laschinger, H. K. S., Day, A., & Oore, D. G. (2011). The impact of civility interventions on employee social behavior, distress, and attitudes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(6), 1258-1274. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024442
  62. Lim, S., & Cortina, L. M. (2005). Interpersonal mistreatment in the workplace: the interface and impact of general incivility and sexual harassment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(3), 483-496. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.90.3.483
  63. Lim, S., Cortina, L. M., & Magley, V. J. (2008). Personal and workgroup incivility: Impact on work and health outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(1), 95-107. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.93.1.95
  64. Liu, P., Xiao, C., He, J., Wang, X., & Li, A. (2020a). Experienced workplace incivility, anger, guilt, and family satisfaction: The double-edged effect of narcissism. Personality and Individual Differences, 154, 109642. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2019.109642
  65. Liu, P., Xiao, C., He, J., Wang, X., & Li, A. (2020b). Experienced workplace incivility, anger, guilt, and family satisfaction: The double-edged effect of narcissism. Personality and Individual Differences, 154, 1-7.
  66. Loh, J. M., Thorsteinsson, E. B., & Loi, N. M. (2021). Workplace incivility and work outcomes: Cross‐cultural comparison between Australian and Singaporean employees. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 59(2), 305-329. https://doi.org/10.1111/1744-7941.12233
  67. Martin, K. D., & Cullen, J. B. (2006). Continuities and extensions of ethical climate theory: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Business Ethics, 69(2), 175-194. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-006-9084-7
  68. McShane, S. L., & Von Glinow, M. A. (2013). Organizational Behavior 5/e. Pearson Publication Inc.
  69. Miller, J. D., Back, M. D., Lynam, D. R., & Wright, A. G. (2021). Narcissism today: What we know and what we need to learn. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 30(6), 519-525. https://doi.org/10.1177/09637214211044109
  70. Morf, & Rhodewalt. (2001). Unraveling the paradoxes of narcissism: A dynamic self-regulatory processing model. Psychological Inquiry, 12(4), 177-196. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327965PLI1204_1
  71. Murtaza, G., Abbas, M., Raja, U., Roques, O., Khalid, A., & Mushtaq, R. (2016). Impact of Islamic Work Ethics on Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and Knowledge-Sharing Behaviors. Journal of Business Ethics, 133(2), 325-333. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-014-2396-0
  72. Murtaza, G., Roques, O., & Khan, R. (2020). Religious beliefs as a moderator of the relationships between workplace incivility and counterproductive work behaviours. Human Systems Management(Preprint), 1-11.
  73. Nasution, F. N., & Rafiki, A. (2019). Islamic work ethics, organizational commitment and job satisfaction of Islamic banks in Indonesia. RAUSP Management Journal, 55(2), 195-205. https://doi.org/10.1108/RAUSP-01-2019-0011
  74. O’Boyle, E. H., Forsyth, D. R., Banks, G. C., & McDaniel, M. A. (2012). A meta-analysis of the Dark Triad and work behavior: a social exchange perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(3), 557-579. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025679
  75. Özsoy, E. (2018). Dark Triad and Counterproductive Work Behaviors: Which of the Dark Triad Traits is More Malevolent? İşletme Araştırmaları Dergisi, 10(4), 742-756. https://doi.org/10.20491/isarder.2018.546
  76. Pagliaro, S., Lo Presti, A., Barattucci, M., Giannella, V. A., & Barreto, M. (2018). On the effects of ethical climate (s) on employees’ behavior: a social identity approach. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00960
  77. Paulhus, D. L., & Williams, K. M. (2002). The dark triad of personality: Narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. Journal of research in personality, 36(6), 556-563. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-6566(02)00505-6
  78. Pearson, C. M., & Porath, C. L. (2005). On the nature, consequences and remedies of workplace incivility: No time for “nice”? Think again. Academy of Management Perspectives, 19(1), 7-18. https://doi.org/10.5465/ame.2005.15841946
  79. Penney, L. M., & Spector, P. E. (2005). Job stress, incivility, and counterproductive work behavior (CWB): The moderating role of negative affectivity. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 26(7), 777-796. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.336
  80. Phipps, S. T., Prieto, L. C., & Deis, M. H. (2015). The role of personality in organizational citizenship behavior: Introducing counterproductive work behavior and integrating impression management as a moderating factor. Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict, 19(1), 176-196.
  81. Porath, & Erez, A. (2009). Overlooked but not untouched: How rudeness reduces onlookers’ performance on routine and creative tasks. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 109(1), 29-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2009.01.003
  82. Porath, & Pearson, C. (2013). The price of incivility. Harvard Business Review, 91(1-2), 115-121.
  83. Qayyum, A., Kousar, S., Jamil, R. A., & Sarmad, M. (2018). Relationship between Work-Family and Interpersonal Conflicts: Mediating Role of Psychological Distress and the Moderating Effect of Islamic Work Ethics. Journal of Islamic Business and Management, 8(2), 501-519. https://doi.org/10.26501/jibm/2018.0802-010
  84. Quoquab, F., & Mohammad, J. (2013). Work ethics from the viewpoint of different religious faiths: do they talk the same? Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 9(9), 5436-5452.
  85. Rice, G. (1999). Islamic ethics and the implications for business. Journal of Business Ethics, 18(4), 345-358. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005711414306
  86. Rizk, R. R. (2008). Back to basics: an Islamic perspective on business and work ethics. Social Responsibility Journal, 4(1/2), 246-254. https://doi.org/10.1108/17471110810856992
  87. Roeser, K., McGregor, V. E., Stegmaier, S., Mathew, J., Kübler, A., & Meule, A. (2016). The Dark Triad of personality and unethical behavior at different times of day. Personality and Individual Differences, 88, 73-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.09.002
  88. Schilbach, M., Baethge, A., & Rigotti, T. (2020). Why employee psychopathy leads to counterproductive workplace behaviours: an analysis of the underlying mechanisms. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2020.1739650
  89. Schilpzand, P., De Pater, I. E., & Erez, A. (2016). Workplace incivility: A review of the literature and agenda for future research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37, S57-S88. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.1976
  90. Sguera, F., Bagozzi, R. P., Huy, Q. N., Boss, R. W., & Boss, D. S. (2016). Curtailing the harmful effects of workplace incivility: The role of structural demands and organization-provided resources. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 95, 115-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2016.08.004
  91. Shagufta, S., & Nazir, S. (2021). Self-esteem and psychopathic traits among undergraduate students: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach. FWU Journal of Social Sciences, 15(2), 117-131. https://doi.org/10.51709/19951272/Summer-2/7
  92. Shin, Y., & Hur, W.-M. (2019). Supervisor incivility and employee job performance: The Mediating roles of job insecurity and amotivation. The Journal of Psychology, 154(1), 38-59. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980.2019.1645634
  93. Spector, P. E. (2011). The relationship of personality to counterproductive work behavior (CWB): An integration of perspectives. Human Resource Management Review, 21(4), 342-352. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2010.10.002
  94. Spector, P. E., Fox, S., Penney, L. M., Bruursema, K., Goh, A., & Kessler, S. (2006). The dimensionality of counterproductivity: Are all counterproductive behaviors created equal? Journal of Vocational Behavior, 68(3), 446-460. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2005.10.005
  95. Stenason, L. (2014). Implicit and Explicit self-esteem in relation to the Dark Triad. Western Undergraduate Psychology Journal, 2(1), 1-15.
  96. Stoica, A. A. (2021). Dark Triad, Risk Taking and Counterproductive Work Behavior in Different Organizational Contexts. Studia Doctoralia, 12(1), 4-19. https://doi.org/10.47040/sd/sdpsych.v12i1.120
  97. Suib, F. H., & Said, M. F. (2017). A review of Islamic work ethics and spirituality concepts in service industry. Journal of Nusantara Studies (JONUS), 2(2), 282-294. https://doi.org/10.24200/jonus.vol2iss2pp282-294
  98. Suryanto, T. (2016). Islamic work ethics and audit opinions: Audit professionalism and dysfunctional behavior as intervening variables. Al-Iqtishad: Jurnal Ilmu Ekonomi Syariah, 8(1), 49-64. https://doi.org/10.15408/aiq.v8i1.2508
  99. Vickers, M. H. (2006). Writing what's relevant: Workplace incivility in public administration-A wolf in sheep's clothing. Administrative Theory & Praxis, 28(1), 69-88. https://doi.org/10.1080/10841806.2006.11029525
  100. Victor, B., & Cullen, J. B. (1987). A theory and measure of ethical climate in organizations. Research in corporate social performance and policy, 9(1), 51-71.
  101. Victor, B., & Cullen, J. B. (1988). The organizational bases of ethical work climates. Administrative Science Quarterly, 101-125. https://doi.org/10.2307/2392857
  102. Viswesvaran, C., Deshpande, S. P., & Milman, C. (1998). The effect of corporate social responsibility on employee counterproductive behavior. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 5(4), 5-12. https://doi.org/10.1108/13527609810796835
  103. Vize, C. E., Miller, J. D., Collison, K. L., & Lynam, D. R. (2021). Untangling the relation between narcissistic traits and behavioral aggression following provocation using an FFM framework. Journal of personality disorders, 35(2), 299-318. https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi_2020_34_321
  104. Wahab, M. A., Quazi, A., & Blackman, D. (2016). Measuring and validating Islamic work value constructs: An empirical exploration using Malaysian samples. Journal of Business Research, 69(10), 4194-4204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.03.005
  105. Wang, Y.-D., & Hsieh, H.-H. (2013). Organizational ethical climate, perceived organizational support, and employee silence: A cross-level investigation. Human Relations, 66(6), 783-802. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726712460706
  106. Wilson, J. A. (2012). The new wave of transformational Islamic marketing. Journal of Islamic Marketing, 3(1), 5-11. https://doi.org/10.1108/17590831211225436
  107. Yang, F.-H., Tsai, Y.-S., & Tsai, K.-C. (2014). The Influences of Ethical Climate of Turnover Intention: The mediation role of Emotional Exhaustion. International Journal of Organizational Innovation, 6(4), 72-89.
  108. Yousef, D. A. (2001). Islamic work ethic – A moderator between organizational commitment and job satisfaction in a cross‐cultural context. Personnel Review, 30(2), 152-169. https://doi.org/10.1108/00483480110380325
  109. Yuliusdharma, Y., Likdanawati, L., Khalsiah, K., & Wafi, A. (2022). Work Islamic Ethics, Organizational Culture, Work Motivation on Citizenship Organization Behavior and Employees Performance at Bank Aceh Sharia. Budapest International Research and Critics Institute (BIRCI-Journal): Humanities and Social Sciences, 5(1), 1126-1133.