Main Article Content


This article aims to identify the phenomenon of unemployment among university graduates through exposure to its causes, characteristics, results, and the mechanisms available to confront this phenomenon. The reality of this phenomenon in the labour market in Biskra State was also presented. This research concluded with several results, including that the unemployment of university graduates in the labour market in Biskra is due to the high population growth and the increasing demand for higher education, which results in a huge number of graduates annually. In addition to the incompatibility of higher education outputs with the needs of the labour market in Biskra and the decline of the state’s intervention in providing job opportunities in the public sector. In contrast, the private sector imposes conditions and qualifications that are not available for university graduates (professional experience, which is, on average, five years, for example), which fails to provide the necessary competencies to support economic growth in line with the requirements of the labour market.


  1. Mandour, A. M., et all. (2003), Introduction to Macroeconomic Theory, Department of Economics, Alexandria University, Egypt. [In Arabic]
  2. Rashwan, H. A. A. (2015), Crises of Youth and Unemployment, University Education House, Alexandria, Egypt. [In Arabic]
  3. Al Sreeti, A. M., & Naga, A. A. W. (2007), Macroeconomic Theory, University House, Alexandria, Egypt. [In Arabic]
  4. Al-Mismari, A. O. (2008), Manpower Planning, Education and the Labor Market, Omar Al-Mukhtar Al-Baida University Publications, Libya. [In Arabic]
  5. Dadi Adoun, N. & Al-Ayeb, A. (2010), Unemployment and the problem of employment within the programs of structural adjustment of the economy through the case of Algeria, OPU, Algeria. [In Arabic]
  6. Al-Zaidi, A. E. (2017), Unemployment among Iraqi youth as a model 1990-2015, Journal of the College of Education for Girls, 28 (4), University of Baghdad, Iraq. [In Arabic]
  7. Haider, K. A (2011), An economic study on the labour market and the problem of disguised unemployment in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, Journal of Administration and Economics, 86. [In Arabic]
  8. Khalil, S. J. (2006), Iraqi University Graduates, Between the Economic Importance of Education and the Exacerbation of the Unemployment Problem, Center for Studies and Research in the Arab World. [In Arabic]
  9. Bouden, A. & Mnoumis, M. (2017), Unemployment of University Graduates: Its Causes, Effects and Methods to Treat it, Social Researcher, 13. [In Arabic]
  10. Shalouf, F. (2017), The Reality of Unemployment and the Labor Market in Algeria: Reasons and Challenges, Department, Social Researcher, 13. [In Arabic]
  11. Ziada, K. (2017), The Reality of Employment Policy in Algeria between 2010-2014, Journal of Human Sciences, 48. [In Arabic]
  12. Khudair, M. A., & Jasim, Y. M. (2011), Measuring the relationship between unemployment and crime in Salah al-Din Governorate for the period 2004-2009, Al-Mustansiriya Center Magazine, College of Administration and Economics, Tikrit University. [In Arabic]
  13. Metwally, N. Y. & Maliki, E. S. (2014), The impact of the availability of information in dealing with the phenomenon of the spread of unemployment among graduates of Saudi universities, an analytical study in light of the structuring of academic programs at Taibah University in Madinah, King Fahd National Library Journal, 20 (1). [In Arabic]
  14. Al-Khalidi, N. O. M, & Ghaly, A. H. (2016), Temporary Employment and the Labor Market, Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Human Sciences, 19(3). [In Arabic]
  15. Bouzida, H. (2010), Inputs and outputs of higher education in Algeria. Forum of Higher Education Outcomes and Labor Market in the Arab Countries, Bahrain, October 2010. [In Arabic]
  16. Lamloum, R. H. (2010), The Reality and Prospects of Higher Education and Development Requirements in Libya, Forum for Higher Education Outcomes and the Labor Market in the Arab Countries, Bahrain, October 2010. [In Arabic]
  17. Bouzar, B. (2014), Effectiveness and Implications of Employment Policies on Unemployment and Poverty in Algeria during the Period 1990-2014, Interventions of the International Forum on Evaluating Poverty Reduction Policies in Arab Countries in the Light of Globalization, 8-9 December 2014. [In Arabic]
  18. Kahleh, K. (2013), Towards a harmonization project between the offer of university degree holders and the demand of the employment market in Algeria - A case study of Medea University graduates - International Forum on “University and Employment, Foresight, Stakes and Stakes on 4 and 5 December 2013”, Medea University, Algeria. [In Arabic]
  19. Boumaza, M. (2010), LMD system from the perspective of community partnership for development, working papers - the Forum for Higher Education Outcomes and the Labor Market in the Arab Countries, Manama, Bahrain, October 2010. [In Arabic]
  20. Baqat, B. (2007), Econometric Modeling of the Unemployment Phenomenon in Algeria in the Light of Economic Reforms since 1994, (Master thesis, Biskra Universit, Algeria). [In Arabic]
  21. Belarbi, A. (2014), The Status of Inclusion Policy among Algerian University Graduates, (Master thesis, Biskra University, Algeria). [In Arabic]
  22. Hammad, Y. H. A. (2015), The Graduate Unemployment Problem and Its Economic and Social Implications in Sudan 2005-2012, (Master thesis, University of Science and Technology, Sudan). [In Arabic]

Article Details

How to Cite
Djorfi, Z., & Boujemaa, S. (2019). Unemployment of University Graduates: Reasons, Results and Solutions Available -Case Study of Biskra State-. Management & Economics Research Journal, 1(1), 51-77.
Cited by