APA Style citations consist of two parts:
  1. In-text citation: A brief citation in parentheses when you mention a source, citing the author’s last name and the year of publication, e.g. (Dekkache, 2020). It identifies the full source in the reference list.
  2. Reference list entry: Full publication details listed on the reference page, which appears at the end of your paper. The reference provides all the information needed to find the source. Citing Sources in APA Format. Dekkache, S. (2020). The impact of maintenance on achieving the quality of the products of the Algerian Economic institution: a case of Al-Hodna mills institution in M’sila. Management & Economics Research Journal, 2(3), 24-45. https://mer-j.com/merj/index.php/merj/article/view/108

1.In-text citations

An in-text citation is a concise way to show the reader where the original idea came from and to give credit to the original author. Use one every time you quote   or paraphrase   a source.

Include the author’s last name and the year of publication. When quoting a source, it’s also necessary to include the page number(s) of the quote.

  • An earlier study in which X and Y were compared revealed that … (Smith, 2017).
  • Smith (2017) shows how, in the past, research into X was mainly concerned with …


2.Creating references in APA format

Each reference must be structured according to the rules for that source type. These rules vary between books, journal articles, internet articles and more.

You should include a reference for all sources you have cited in the text. Don’t include sources you have only consulted. There are four types of source that are never included in an APA reference page:

  • Classical works
  • Personal communication such as emails, telephone conversations and chat messages
  • Entire websites (always cite the page)
  • Common knowledge