APA Style citations consist of two parts:
  1. In-text citation: A brief citation in parentheses when you mention a source, citing the author’s last name and the year of publication, e.g. (Dekkache, 2020). It identifies the full source in the reference list.
  2. Reference list entry: Full publication details listed on the reference page, which appears at the end of your paper. The reference provides all the information needed to find the source. Citing Sources in APA Format. Dekkache, S. (2020). The impact of maintenance on achieving the quality of the products of the Algerian Economic institution: a case of Al-Hodna mills institution in M’sila. Management & Economics Research Journal, 2(3), 24-45. Retrieved from https://mer-j.com/merj/index.php/merj/article/view/108

1.In-text citations

An in-text citation is a concise way to show the reader where the original idea came from and to give credit to the original author. Use one every time you quote or paraphrase a source.

Include the author’s last name and the year of publication. When quoting a source, it’s also necessary to include the page number(s) of the quote.

  • An earlier study in which X and Y were compared revealed that … (Smith, 2017).
  • Smith (2017) shows how, in the past, research into X was mainly concerned with …

1 author

  • Research shows that there is a great need for … (Thomas, 2014).
  • Thomas (2014) write that there is a great need for …

2 authors

When there are two authors, separate their last names with an ampersand (&), or with the word ‘and’ when they appear in the running text.

  • Research shows that there is a great need for … (Reynolds & Thomas, 2014).
  • Reynolds and Thomas (2014) write that there is a great need for …

3-5 authors

When there are three or more authors, separate their last names using commas (,). The last two authors’ last names should be separated by both a comma and an ampersand.

  • Recent research suggests that there is … (McGuire, Morrison, Reynolds, & Thomas, 2014).
  • McGuire, Morrison, Reynolds, and Thomas (2014) argue that …

If you cite the same source again, to save space, you shorten the citation. Instead of including all the authors’ names, include only the first author, followed by “et al.” (meaning “and others”).

  • In this research, many participants made use of … (McGuire et al., 2014).
  • McGuire et al. (2014) noticed that …

6 or more authors

If a source has six or more authors, use the shortened version from the first citation.

  • Lunott et al. (2015) discuss the …

NB: Using “et al.” in APA in-text citations

Sources with three, four or five authors are shortened after the first citation. From the second citation onwards, include only the first author name followed by “et al.” (“and others”). Sources with six or more authors are always shortened, including in the first citation.

Organization as author

When a source does not list an individual author, it can often be attributed to an organization instead.

  • According to new research … (Microsoft, 2014).

Note (Abbreviation)

If a group author name is well known, it can be abbreviated to enhance readability. Provide the full name the first time the name is mentioned in the text, followed by the abbreviation. For subsequent citations, the abbreviated format can be used

  • The World Trade Organization (WTO, 2020) first addressed the topic..
  • According to new research … (World Trade Organization [WTO], 2020)

Quotes

When you quote a source, you also have to add the page number to the in-text citation.

  • According to the company’s business plan, “making an APA Citation Generator is a lot of work, but many students benefit from it” (Swan, 2014, p. 5).

Multiple sources in one citation?

Sometimes, it’s necessary to cite multiple sources in one sentence. You can combine them into one set of parentheses, separated by semicolons (;).

  • Various studies show that … (Docker & Vagrant, 2002; Porter, 1997; Lima, Swan, & Corrieri, 2012).

Multiple author names are separated using a comma. Only the final name in the list is preceded by an ampersand (“&”), for example: (Taylor, Johnson, & Parker, 2019). Use “et al.” to shorten in-text citations of sources with 6+ authors (first in-text citations) and 3+ authors (subsequent in-text citations), for example: (Taylor et al., 2019).

APA in-text citation multiple authors

Author type

First in-text citation

Subsequent in-text citations

No author

(“Title of the Work,” 2018)

(“Title of the Work,” 2018)

1 author

(Taylor, 2018)

(Taylor, 2018)

2 authors

(Taylor & Kotler, 2018)

(Taylor & Kotler, 2018)

3 – 5 authors

(Taylor, Kotler, Johnson, & Parker, 2018)

(Taylor et al., 2018)

6+ authors

(Taylor et al., 2018)

(Taylor et al., 2018)

Organization (identified through abbreviation)

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2018)

(CDC, 2018)

Organization (no abbreviation)

(Apple, 2018)

(Apple, 2018)

  • When using the abbreviation “et al.,” always include a period (“.”).
  • Include a comma between “et al.” and the publication date (e.g. Taylor et al., 2018).
  • There should be no punctuation between “et al.” and the author’s name preceding it.
  • The period ending the sentence always comes after the citation (even when quoting).

Never use an ampersand symbol (“&”) in the running text. Instead, use the full word “and.”

  • According to research by Taylor & Kotler … (2018). (not correct)
  • Taylor and Kotler conclude … (2018). (correct)

Including the page number(s) in the in-text citation is required when quoting a source. It is encouraged, but not required, when paraphrasing a source. Don’t include page numbers when referring to a work as a whole, e.g. “the study shows…”.

If the quote or paraphrase covers just one page, use “p. 16.” If it covers two or more pages, use a double ‘p’ followed by a page range (e.g. pp. 16-18).

The in-text citation can be included in three different ways:

  • This is also confirmed by the business plan: “creating an APA Citation Generator is a lot of work but many students benefit from it” (Smith, 2014, pp. 14-15).
  • Smith (2014) states: “making an APA Citation Generator is a lot of work but many students benefit from it” (pp. 14-15).
  • In 2014, Smith wrote: “making an APA Citation Generator is a lot of work but many students benefit from it” (pp. 14-15).

When quoting a source that has no pages or page numbers, you can include a chapter or paragraph number instead.

If the source uses headings, cite the heading and the paragraph number following it. Long headings may be shortened, but then they should be enclosed in quotation marks.

  • (Johnson, 2019, Chapter 3)
  • (McCombes, 2016, para. 4)
  • (Smith, 2014, Conclusion, para. 2)
  • (Streefkerk, 2019, “No Page Numbers,” para. 2)

If the cited list originates from one source, put the in-text citation after the last list item. If the list comes from several different sources, add the in-text citations after each list item.

List from one source The following factors are identified:

  • Wired lifestyle
  • Time pressure
  • Risk aversion
  • Internet experience
  • Social interaction (Johnson, 2016, p. 18).

List from several sources The following two basic characteristics were found in the literature:

  • Consumers experience greater risk for online purchases (Writers et al., 2016, p. 47).
  • Young consumers experience no risk for online purchases (Porter, 2016, pp. 63-64).

The basic APA guidelines are not applicable to every source. Information can be missing, confusing for the reader or simply different. The most common exceptions are listed below.

1.7.1-No author

If the author is unknown, cite the first few words of the reference list entry instead (usually the title). Enclose the title in double quotation marks when citing an article, web page or book chapter. Italicize the title of periodicals, books, reports and brochures.

  • (“U.S. Flood Risk Could Be Worse Than We Thought,” 2015)
  • (Thinking, Fast and Slow, 2017)

1.7.2-No date

For sources without a year of publication, use “n.d.” (no date) instead: (Johnson, n.d.).

1.7.3-Multiple sources in the same parentheses

If you’re using multiple sources to support a statement, you can combine the in-text citations and separate them using semicolons. Order the sources alphabetically.

If you’re using multiple sources from the same author, you don’t have to repeat the author. Just add the other years and separate them with a comma.

Several studies show that … (Brown & Brody, 2009; Porter, 2004; Swaen, 2015, 2017a, 2017b).

1.7.4-Multiple publications from the same author(s) in the same year

To differentiate between two publications from the same author published in the same year, add a suffix after the publication year.

Research by Swaen (2014a) shows that …

1.7.5-Repeated use of the same source

For citing the same source multiple times in a paragraph there are specific APA guidelines. The first mention should include the author and publication year. For subsequent mentions in the running text, you only have to include the author’s last name, not the year. However, citations in parentheses should always include the year.

Research by Swaen (2016) shows that students think the APA Citation Generator is a useful tool. Swaen also states that universities are increasingly using the generator. Scribbr is therefore continuing to develop the APA Citation Generator (Swaen, 2016).

1.7.6-Different authors with the same last name

To differentiate between two (or more) authors with the same last name, include the initials. This rule applies even if the year of publication is different.

  1. Swaen (2017) states that … , as does G. H. Swaen (2008).

1.7.7-Citing a source within a source (secondary source)

If you want to cite a source that you found in another source, you can do one of two things. First of all, you should try to find the original source (primary source). If you’re able to find it you can use regular APA guidelines.

If you are not able to find the primary source, you should cite it through the source that led you to it (secondary source). The in-text citation looks like this:

Porter (as cited in Johnson, 2017) states that…

Note that you only need to include the publication year of the source you consulted (here Johnson).

1.7.8-Personal communication

Personal communication such as phone calls, emails and conversations are not cited in the reference list because they can’t be found anywhere. However, you should still cite them using an in-text citation.

Give the initials and the last name of the person you communicated with and provide as exact a date as possible.

Sales are declining in the second quarter (P. G. Brown, personal communication, June 13, 2018).

 

2.Creating references in APA format

Each reference must be structured according to the rules for that source type. These rules vary between books, journal articles, internet articles and more.

You should include a reference for all sources you have cited in the text. Don’t include sources you have only consulted. There are four types of source that are never included in an APA reference page:

  • Classical works
  • Personal communication such as emails, telephone conversations and chat messages
  • Entire websites (always cite the page)
  • Common knowledge

A standard source reference begins with the author’s surname, followed by a comma, then the initial(s) of his or her first name.

If there are multiple authors, place a comma between each of the author names and an ampersand (“&”) before the last author’s name. If there are more than eight authors, list the first six followed by an ellipses “…” followed by the last author.

There should always be a period after the author name(s).

Number of authors

Example (journal article format)

1 author

Bentham, G. (1996). Association Between Incidence Of Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma And Solar Ultraviolet Radiation In England And Wales. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 312(7039), 1128-1131. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/29731519

2 authors

Mead, G., & Whitehouse, J. (1986). Regular Review: Modern Management Of Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma. British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Edition), 293(6547), 577-580. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/29524395

3 – 7 authors

Ishii, K., Hosoi, Y., Yamada, S., Ono, T., & Sakamoto, K. (1996). Decreased Incidence of Thymic Lymphoma in AKR Mice as a Result of Chronic, Fractionated Low-Dose Total-Body X Irradiation. Radiation Research, 146(5), 582-585. https://doi.org/10.2307/3579560

8+ authors

Zoufaly, A., Stellbrink, H., An der Heiden, M., Kollan, C., Hoffmann, C., Van Lunzen, J., . . . ClinSurv Study Group. (2009). Cumulative HIV Viremia during Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Is a Strong Predictor of AIDS-Related Lymphoma. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 200(1), 79-87. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40255115

Every source cited in the text must also appear in your reference list.

The format differs depending on the source type, but every reference begins in the same way: with the author’s last name and initials, the publication year or date, and the title of the source.

2.2.1-Printed Book

Note: Book titles should be italicized. Details about edition, volume number or chapter page range are placed in parentheses directly after the title, with the period after the parentheses, e.g., (2nd ed.). or (Rev. ed.). or (Vol. xvi).

Last Name, Initials. (Year). Book title (edition). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Castells, M. (2000). End of millennium (2nd ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell.

2.2.2-Electronic Book

2.2.2.1-Entire electronic book

Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of book. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx

Neville, C. (2010). The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx

2.2.2.2-Electronic book from an online library

Last Name, Initials. Title of book. Retrieved from http://xxxx.

Neville, C. (2010). The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. Retrieved from http://www.ebrary.com

2.2.2.3-Electronic version of print book

Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of book [Version]. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com

Dickens, C. (1859). A tale of two cities [Classic Bookshelf version]. Retrieved from http://www.classicbookshelf.com/library/charles_dickens/a_tale_of_two_cities/

Note:

Book titles should be italicized.

2.2.3-Book Chapter

Last Name, Initials. (Year of publication). Title of chapter or section. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages of the chapter referred to). Place of publication: Publisher.

Daniels, P. J. (1993). Australia's foreign debt: Searching for the benefits. In P. Maxwell & S. Hopkins (Eds.), Macroeconomics: Contemporary Australian readings (pp. 200-250). Pymble, Australia: Harper Educational.

If there is no author, as in an article or section from a reference work:

Title of entry or section (Year of publication). In Title of reference work (xx ed., Vol. xx, pp. xxx-xxx). Place of publication: Publisher.

Notes: 

  • Provide both the title of the chapter (not italicised) and the title of the book (italicised).
  • Give inclusive page numbers for the chapter in the Reference List.
  • Details about edition, volume number or chapter page range are placed in parentheses, e.g., ( 2nd ed.). or (Rev. ed.). or (Vol. 16).
  • If there is no chapter author, use the editor's name as author and do not repeat as editor.
  • If pages are being directly referenced in the text, include the page number/s in the in-text citation after the year.
  • Do not invert the editor's name. (e.g. P. Maxwell, not Maxwell, P.)

2.2.4-Edited Book

Editor, A. A., & Editor, B. B. (Eds.). (Year of publication). Title of book (Edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Beckman, K. R., & Ma, J. (Eds.). (2008). Still moving: Between cinema and photography. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

2.2.5-Electronic Journal article with DOI

Note: The journal title and volume number should be italicized.

Last Name, Initials., & Last Name, Initials. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, Volume(Issue), Page Number(s). https://doi.org/DoiNumber

Andreff, W., & Staudohar, P. D. (2000). The evolving European model of professional sports finance. Journal of Sports Economics, 1(3), 257–276. https://doi.org./10.1177/152700250000100304

2.2.6-Electronic Journal article without DOI

Last Name, Initials., & Last Name, Initials. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, Volume(Issue), Page Number(s). Retrieved from web address of journal

Parris, K. M., Velik-Lord, M., & North, J. M. A. (2009). Frogs call at a higher pitch in traffic noise. Ecology and Society, 14(1), 1-24. Retrieved from http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/

2.2.7-Printed Journal Article

Last Name, Initials., Last Name, Initials., & Last Name, Initials. (Year of publication). Title of article. Name of Publication, Volume(issue), Page numbers.

Lindgren, K., Inkinen, M., & Widmalm, S. (2009). Who knows best what the people want: Women or men? Comparative Political Studies, 42(2), 31-55.

For eight or more authors:

Dotsch, S., Wigboldus, R. J., van Knippenberg, Z., Ackermannered, L., Griskevicius, B., Li, N. P., … Botros, N. (2011). Post-traumatic stress disorder: Can hypnotherapy help? Journal of New Therapies, 22(3), 17-34.

2.2.8-Magazine Article

Last Name, Initials. (Year of publication, Month day). Title of article. Name of Publication, xx, pp-pp.

Claburn, T. (2008, May 5). Swarm of patent suits bites Apple. Electronic Engineering Times, 1525, 22.

Newman, M. (2008, October). Baffling the bandits. National Wildlife, 46, 14-15.

Burrows, C. (2009, March/April). The shyness myth: Questioning student stereotypes. ESL Magazine, 68, 22-26. Retrieved from http://www.eslmag.com/

Notes: 

  • In the reference list, give the year and month separated by a comma. If appropriate, include the exact date, e.g., (2008, March 3). If the date is given as a season, provide the year and the season, e.g., (2011, Winter).
  • In the in-text citation, give only the first author’s surname and the year.
  • Italicise the name of the magazine and volume number.
  • Capitalise the first and all major words of the magazine’s name.
  • Give the magazine’s name in full, e.g., Reproduction, Fertility and Development.
  • Give the volume number if available.
  • Give inclusive page numbers.
  • Include both article title and subtitle, regardless of length.
  • For online magazines articles, provide the home page URL of the magazine publisher, not the URL of the article as retrieved from the database search. Do not place a full-stop after the URL.

2.2.9-Secondary source

Last Name, Initials., & Last Name, Initials.. [authors of the article you read] (Year of publication). Title of article you read. Name of Journal, Volume(issue), pp-pp.

Gholson, B., & Barker, P. (1985). Kuhn, Lakatos, and Laudan: Applications in the history of physics and psychology. American Psychologist, 40(6), 755-769.

For example - in text citation: According to Lakatos (as cited in B. Gholson & P. Barker, 1985), scientists justifiably continue …

2.2.10-Web pages with author

Last Name, Initials. (Date). Title of page. Retrieved from web address.

Greenblatt, S. (2002). A special letter from Stephen Greenblatt. Retrieved from http://www.mla.org/scholarly_pub.

2.2.11-Web pages with no author

Title of page. (Date). Retrieved from web address.

UK terror threat reduced to "substantial." (2011, July). Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-14111281

2.2.12-Government and Other Reports (Print)

Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of work. Place of publication: Publisher (if same as author use 'Author').

Department of Education and Early Childhood Development & Victorian Curriculum Assessment Authority. (2011). Victorian early years learning and development framework: For all children from birth to eight years. Melbourne, Vic.: Author.

2.2.13-Government and Other Reports (retrieved online)

Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of work. Retrieved from http://xxxxxx (Agency website)

Department of Health and Ageing. (2012). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health performance framework 2012 report. Retrieved from http://www.health.gov.au/internet/publications/publishing.nsf/Content/oatsih-hpf-2012-toc

2.2.14-Company Information

Corporate Author. (Year). Title of company report [Type]. Retrieved from Company database.

Dun and Bradstreet. (2017). BHP Billiton Limited, profile [Company profile]. Retrieved from Company360 database.

DatAnalysis Premium. (2013). BHP Billiton Limited, 2013 company financials as reported [Financial Data]. Retrieved from DatAnalysis Premium database.

2.2.15-Industry report from library database (no author listed)

Database. (Year, Month). Title of report [Type of report]. Retrieved from URL

Business Monitor International. (2013, May). Australia mining report Q3 2013 [Industry overview]. Retrieved from Business Monitor International database.

2.2.16-Report from library database (author listed)

Last Name, Initials. (Year, Month). Title of report [Type of report]. Retrieved from URL

Stickings, M. (2010, September). Latin America Monitor: Brazil Monitor. Mining report [Industry overview]. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.

2.2.17-Industry report from print source (no author listed)

Title of report [Type of report]. (Year). Location: Source Name.

Oil & gas in the United States: Industry profile. (2005). New York, NY: Datamonitor.

2.2.18-Industry report from print source (author listed)

Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of report [Type of report]. Location: Source Name.

Koukin, N.V., & Zotov, V.E. (1993). Russian oil & gas industry: Professional guide. Moscow: A.D. Golubovich.

2.2.19-An unpublished thesis

Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title (Unpublished doctoral dissertation/Master's thesis). Institution issuing degree, City, Country.

2.2.20-For a thesis available through a database service, such as ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database, include the name of the database and the accession or order number in the reference:

Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title (Doctoral dissertation/Master's thesis). Retrieved from Name of Database. (Accession or Order No.)

2.2.21-A thesis from an institutional database

Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title (Doctoral dissertation/Master's thesis). Retrieved from web address

2.2.22-A thesis available on the web

Last Name, Initials.(Year). Title (Doctoral dissertation/Master's thesis, Institution issuing degree). Retrieved from web address

2.2.23-Working Paper with DOI

Last Name, Initials., & Last Name, Initials. (Year, Month). Title of work. (Working Paper No. #). https://doi.org/xxxxxxxxx

Givord, P. (2020, April). How a student’s month of birth is linked to performance at school: New evidence from PISA (OECD Education Working Papers No. 221). https://doi.org/10.1787/19939019

2.2.24-Working Paper without DOI 

Last Name, Initials., & Last Name, Initials. (Year, Month). Title of work. (Working Paper No. #). Retrieved from URL

Wittwer, G. (2020, March). The 2019-20 Australian Economic Crisis Induced by Bushfires and COVID-19 from the Perspective of Grape and Wine Sectors (CoPS Working Paper No. G-299). https://www.copsmodels.com/ftp/workpapr/g-299.pdf

Or

Huong, D., Donoghoe, M., Hughes, N., & Goesch, T. (2018, November). A micro-simulation model of irrigation farms in the southern Murray-Darling basin [Working paper]. Australian Bueau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences. Retrieved May 29, 2020 from https://www.agriculture.gov.au/abares/research-topics/working-papers/micro-simulation-model-irrigation-farms

2.2.25-Advance Online Publications With DOI

Last Name, Initials., & Last Name, Initials. (Publication date). Title of article. Title of publication. Advance online publication. http://doi:xxxxxxxxxx

Morgan, A. J., Reavley, N. J., Ross, A., Too, L. S., & Jorm, A. F. (2018). Interventions to reduce stigma towards people with severe mental illness: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Psychiatric Research. Advance online publication. http://doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2018.05.017

2.2.26-Advance Online Publications With DOI

Last Name, Initials., & Last Name, Initials. (Publication date). Title of article. Title of publication. Advance online publication. Retrieved from Journal homepage URL

Morgan, A. J., Reavley, N. J., Ross, A., Too, L. S., & Jorm, A. F. (2018). Interventions to reduce stigma towards people with severe mental illness: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Psychiatric Research. Advance online publication. Retrieved from https://www.journals.elsevier.com/journal-of-psychiatric-research

2.2.27-Manuscript Accepted for Publication

Last Name, Initials., & Last Name, Initials. (in press). Title of article. Title of publication.

Ferasat, Z., Panahi, R., & Mokhtarani, B. (in press). Natural polymer matrix as safe flocculant to remove turbidity from kaolin suspension: Performance and governing mechanism. Journal of Environmental Management.

2.2.28-Manuscript Submitted for Publication

Last Name, Initials., & Last Name, Initials. (Date written). Title of article. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Ferasat, Z., Panahi, R., & Mokhtarani, B. (2019). Natural polymer matrix as safe flocculant to remove turbidity from kaolin suspension: Performance and governing mechanism. Manuscript submitted for publication.

2.2.29-Manuscript in Preparation

Last Name, Initials., & Last Name, Initials. (Date written). Title of article. Manuscript in preparation.

Ferasat, Z., Panahi, R., & Mokhtarani, B. (2019). Natural polymer matrix as safe flocculant to remove turbidity from kaolin suspension: Performance and governing mechanism. Manuscript in preparation.

2.2.30-Symposium contribution

Contributor, A. A., Contributor, B. B., Contributor, C. C., & Contributor, D. D. (Year, Month). Title of contribution. In E. E. Chairperson (Chair), Title of symposium. Symposium conducted at the meeting of Organization Name, Location.

Reenen, J.R. (2018, August). Increasing differences between firms: Market power and the macro-economy. In K.J. Forbes (Chair), Changing market structures and implications for monetary policy. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, Jackson Hole, WY.

2.2.31-Paper presentation or poster session

Presenter, A. A., Presenter, B. B., & Presenter, C. C. (Year, month). Title of paper or poster. Paper or poster session presented at the meeting of Organization Name, Location. Abstract retrieved from http://xxxxx

Kenab, M., & Braham, T.Q. (2005, May). Simultaneous querying of XML and relational contexts. Paper presented at the 7th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, Miami, FL. Abstract retrieved from http://www.iceis.org/iceis2005/abstracts_2005.htm

2.2.32-Proceedings published regularly online With DOI

Last Name, Initials., & Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of article. Title of proceedings, Location, Volume number(Issue number), pp-pp. http://doi:xxxxxxxxxx

Zhang, E. T., He, Y., Grob, P., Fong, Y. W., Nogales, E., & Tjian, R. (2015). Architecture of the human XPC DNA repair and stem cell coactivator complex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 112(48), 14817–14822. http://doi:10.1073/pnas.1520104112

2.2.33-Proceedings published regularly online Without DOI

Last Name, Initials., & Last Name, Initials. (Publication date). Title of article. Title of proceedings, Location, Volume number(Issue number), pp-pp. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Zhang, E. T., He, Y., Grob, P., Fong, Y. W., Nogales, E., & Tjian, R. (2015). Architecture of the human XPC DNA repair and stem cell coactivator complex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 112(48), 14817–14822. https://www.pnas.org/content/112/48/14817

2.2.34-Proceedings published in book form With DOI

Last Name, Initials., & Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of paper. In D. Editor, E. Editor & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book series: Vol. #. Title of proceedings (pp–pp). Location: Publisher. http://doi.org/xxxxx

Palmer R.I., & Xie X. (2016). Neural network boundary detection for 3D vessel segmentation. In J. Blanc-Talon, C. Distante, W. Philips, D. Popescu & P. Scheunders (Eds.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Vol. 10016. Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems (pp. 25-36). Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-48680-2_3

2.2.35-Proceedings published in book form Without DOI

Last Name, Initials., & Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of paper. In D. Editor, E. Editor & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book series: Vol. #. Title of proceedings (pp–pp). Location: Publisher. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Palmer R.I., & Xie X. (2016). Neural network boundary detection for 3D vessel segmentation. In J. Blanc-Talon, C. Distante, W. Philips, D. Popescu & P. Scheunders (Eds.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Vol. 10016. Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems (pp. 25-36). Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-48680-2_3

2.2.36-Latin-based scripts  (Italian, French..etc)

Type of material: Book
Original language: Italian

In-text citation: (Molinari & Labella, 2007)

Molinari, E., & Labella, A. (2007). Psicologia clinica: Dialoghi e confronti [Clinical psychology: Dialogue and confrontation]. Milan: Springer.

Notes:

  • Book/article titles and names written in Latin-based scripts (French, Spanish, German, etc.) can be cited with only minor adjustments.
  • Provide a translation of the title in square brackets. Do not translate names written in Latin-based scripts.
  • Be mindful of grammatical rules in other languages. German, for example, capitalizes all nouns.

2.2.37-Non Latin scripts, such as Arabic or Chinese

If you use the original version of a non-English work, cite the original version. Non-Latin alphabets are not used in the reference list in APA Style, so the title needs to be transliterated (that is, converted to the alphabet you are using to write a paper), and then followed by an English translation, in brackets.

Book

Elements of the reference

Author(s) - last name, initial(s). (Year). Title - italicised - original title [Title - English translation]. Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text reference

(Najm, 1966)

Najm (1966) stated that ....

Reference list

Najm, Y. (1966). Al-qissah fi al-adab Al-Arabi al-hadith [The novel in modern Arabic literature]. Beirut: Dar Al-Thaqafah.

Notes: 

  • Titles and names written in non-Latin scripts (Chinese, Arabic, Russian, etc.) must be transliterated before translating and citing. If you are uncomfortable transliterating material yourself, don't guess -- get help!
  • Titles should be transliterated and translated into English.
  • Names should be transliterated (not translated) and arranged in "Western" order, e.g., ordered by surname in reference list.

Web page

Elements of the reference

last name, initial(s). (Year). Title - original title [Title - English translation]. Website name -italicised-. Retrieved from https//.

In-text reference (Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1997)

Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1997) stated that ....

Reference list

Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (1997, June 12). Peru jiken chosa iinkai no hokoku ni tsuite no Ikeda Gaimu Daijin no kishakaiken [Press interview with Foreign Minister Ikeda on the report of the investigation committee on the Peru Incident]. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Retrieved from http://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/gaiko/hoka/peru/ index.html

Notes:

  • When citing a foreign language journal, transliterate if necessary
  • Do not translate foreign journal titles into English