Vol. 2 No. 4 (2020): September

Boumedyen Taibi & Khadidja Lamri.


The objective of this research document is to analyze the relationship between tourism and economic growth in Algeria during the period 1995-2018. To this end, an economic model was estimated according to the econometric methodology (cointegration relationship test and vector error correction model “VECM” in addition to the Granger causality test).

 The results showed that the number of tourists has a negative impact on economic growth in Algeria, which means that Algeria depends on other variables to increase economic growth, such as oil revenues.

Keywords: Causality, Cointegration, Economic Growth, Tourism, Algeria.

Accepted: 15-06-2020

Oludayo Elijah Adekunle


What determines foreign direct investment inflows has been a subject of controversies among scholars. As a result of the highlighted gap discussed in this study, the short and long run determinants of foreign direct investment and their effects on foreign direct investment inflow in Nigeria was investigated from 1986 to 2018. Data were analyzed with Augmented Dickey-Fuller and Philip Perron unit root test, Autoregressive Distributed Lag and Pairwise Granger Causality techniques. Evidence of long run dynamic equilibrium relationship was established between foreign direct investment and its determinants. The short and long run coefficients revealed that government capital expenditure and inflation impede the inflow of foreign direct investment both in the short and long run while exchange rate serve as bane to foreign direct investment in the long run. However, gross domestic product and trade openness were found to stimulate the inflow of foreign direct investment in the short and long run. The Pairwise causality result revealed that government capital expenditure, exchange rate and trade openness had independent causality with foreign direct investment while gross domestic product and inflation rate had unidirectional causality with foreign direct investment. Thus, government should allocate more funds for the provision of enabling and investment enhancing environment to promote foreign direct investment inflow. The study added value to previous studies by estimating the short and long run determinants of foreign direct investment using more dynamic and robust technique of Autoregressive Distributed Lag developed by Peseran and Shin (1999).

Keywords: ARDL, Causality, Economic Policies, Foreign Direct Investment.

Alexandru Trifu


"Mind the gap!" is an expression meaning a visual or audible warning phrase to take caution while crossing the gap between the train door and the platform. The subject of this paper is to highlight the existing inequalities, even the case East-West, and the necessity that, by political will and concrete economic and social measures, not only by warnings, to mitigate these disparities in the benefit of the parties involved in.

This means that, through continuous political awareness of these inequalities, paying attention to this scourge of the today’s world and to implement such measures in order to ensure a strategic game type win-win.

The methods used in this paper are represented by primary data collected from international reports and situations about the status of today’s world countries and from national analyses published. All these data and information become base for the analyses of this issue and emergence of valuable recommendations, rather than conclusions, regarding the counterbalance East and West, apart from the famous and classic example of  David Ricardo regarding the theory of the international trade between the rich and developed North and the poor and underdeveloped/developing South, in Europe and in the world.

Awareness, alertness and prompt responses to all challenges and a balanced development type win-win, here they are the keys for a modus vivendi and sustainable evolution.

Keywords: Inequality, Development, Workforce Migration, Win-Win Game.

Feren Frisca Tania, Mukhlasin


This study aims to analyze the effect of the effectiveness of internal control, independent commissioners, the expertise of the board of commissioners, the number of audit committees, and the expertise of the audit committee on tax avoidance in manufacturing companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange period 2016-2018. This research is expected to be a material consideration for companies in making decisions related to taxation. The deductive approach used in this study by developing hypotheses based on relevant theories and findings of previous studies. Agency theory is used to see the effect of corporate governance on tax avoidance. The data collection method uses secondary data from the company's financial statements and annual reports according to specific criteria. Data analysis was performed by descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression. The results of the regression analysis prove that effectiveness of internal control and number of audit committees had a positive effect which means higher effectiveness of internal control and number of audit committees cause more tax avoidance, conversely independent commissioners and expertise of the board of commissioners had a negative effect which shows greater independent commissioners and expertise of the board of commissioners cause less tax avoidance. Another result claim that the expertise of the audit committee did not affect on tax avoidance. In contrast to previous studies, this study is more varied by combining several independent variables.

Keywords: Audit Committees, Board of Commissioners, Internal Control, Tax Avoidance.